space lectures


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    Edo Berger: Gamma-Ray Bursts: The Biggest Explosions Since the Big Bang

    58:51

    Representing nature's biggest explosions since the Big Bang itself, gamma-ray bursts were first accidentally spotted in the 1960s by Department of Defense satellites hunting for terrestrial nuclear blasts. In this talk Prof. Berger describes the ensuing decades-long quest to decipher the origin and energy source of these mysterious explosions. He explains how gamma-ray bursts are now used to probe the first generation of stars and galaxies formed less than a billion years after the Big Bang.

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    Prof. Daniele Faccio: Black Holes, With A Twist - Inaugural Lecture

    48:08

    Inaugural Lecture of Professor Daniele Faccio at Heriot-Watt University.

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    Inside Black Holes | Leonard Susskind

    1:10:33

    Additional lectures by Leonard Susskind:

    ER=EPR:
    ER=EPR but Entanglement is Not Enough:
    Fractal Flows and the Arrow of Time:
    Working Group on Issues in de Sitter Space:
    Butterflies, Complexity, and Signals to Bob:
    Aspects of Eternal Inflation:
    Quantum Complexity Inside Black Holes:

    Find more lectures by Stephen Hawking, Edward Witten, Jim Gates, John Preskill, Sean Carroll, Joe Polchinski, Nima Arkani-Hamed, Donald Marolf, and many more on my channel
    ----------------------------------------------
    Leonard Susskind
    Stanford & KITP
    Aug 25, 2013

    'Inside Black Holes' lecture given by Lenny Susskind at the KITP Blackboard Lunch.

    Coordinators: Raphael Bousso (UCB), Samir Mathur (OSU), Rob Myers (PI), Joe Polchinski (KITP), Lenny Susskind (Stanford)
    Scientific Advisor: Don Marolf (UCSB)

    Video can also be found here:

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    Quasars: the Brightest Black Holes - Professor Carolin Crawford

    58:48

    Quasars are among the most dramatic objects anywhere in the cosmos. They emit prodigious amounts of energy, all due to a supermassive black hole at the heart of a galaxy. Visible far across the Universe, quasars can be used to trace both the early life of galaxies, and the properties of the intervening space.

    The transcript and downloadable versions of the lecture are available from the Gresham College website:

    Gresham College has been giving free public lectures since 1597. This tradition continues today with all of our five or so public lectures a week being made available for free download from our website. There are currently over 1,500 lectures free to access or download from the website.
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    The Gamma Ray Burst of 775

    4:38

    About 1200 years ago, Earth may have experienced one of the rarest and most powerful cosmic events a planet can be exposed to: a gamma-ray burst. If it did, well, let’s just say that we, as living things on Earth, are lucky it wasn’t worse.

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    Gamma Ray Burst Stuns Astronomers | Space News

    8:21

    The most intense electromagnetic event known to occur in the heavens is the gamma ray burst. For many years, scientists have claimed that most gamma ray burst occur when stars run out of nuclear fuel then collapse to form a black hole, neutron star or quark star. However, a recently detected gamma ray burst has left astronomers openly baffled. Wal Thornhill weighs in.

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    The Birth Of A Black Hole, Masters of the universe Hypernovas, Gamma Ray burst etc YouTube

    6:44

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    Prehistoric Gamma Ray Burst

    3:53

    Current theories suggest that a gamma ray burst (GRB) caused the first mass extinction on Earth, about 450 million years ago.

    This sequence depicts a red giant star, approximately 6000 light years from Earth, exploding in a supernova explosion. High energy gamma rays are emitting from the poles of the star, slightly in advance of the explosion, and travel in a beam across space.

    We follow the gamma rays as they travel through space and overtake the camera. At near light speeds, everything would appear warped and in front of you, with objects directly in front being blue-shifted and objects behind being red-shifted. In this, objects behind the camera are seen along the edge of the frame.

    Finally, the GRB hits the solar system, passing Jupiter and then on to the Ordovician period Earth, ionizing the atmosphere and destroying the young ozone layer. Global auroras are shown to depict this, but in reality, the event would likely be invisible in daylight, other than the sudden appearance of an extremely bright star. The Gamma Ray Burst itself would only last a few seconds to a couple minutes at most, but the supernova would be visible for several days or months, even in broad daylight. In fact, at only 6000 light years away, it would be brighter than the full moon, and possibly painful to look at.

    The ozone layer would quickly be destroyed, turning into nitrous oxide, more commonly known as smog, which then kicked off a global warming period. Weather patterns changed, creating super hurricanes and eventually the planet's first ice age.


    The show got a major detail wrong, saying that only a couple GRBs have hit the earth. In fact, an average of 2 of these are detected by satellites every DAY. All of them are from very distant galaxies, where they pose no threat to us. And those are only the ones that we can see since only about 10% of the stars out there have one of their poles pointed in our general direction.

    This was done for the first episode of Radical 3D's miniseries, Animal Armageddon on Animal Planet.

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    Gamma-Ray Burst Shatters Old Theories | Space News

    9:31

    A team of scientists studying the afterglow of a gamma-ray burst tell us that their findings will re-write scientific theories. Using the Very Large Array Telescope, the team examined the afterglow of a gamma ray burst which mainstream astronomers assume is formed by a so-called shockwave. What they observed does not match the theoretical predictions of the standard model. Wal Thornhill tells listeners how the Electric Universe paradigm would view the findings. Story:

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    Public Lecture—Black Holes, the Brightest Objects in the Universe

    1:11:13

    Lecture Date: Tuesday, April 28, 2009. Black holes are everywhere in the Universe. They form when massive stars end their life in a simultaneous violent collapse and energetic explosion. Galaxies end up littered with small black holes, each roughly the mass of ten Suns. Nearly every galaxy center ends up with a single huge black hole, with the mass of a million to a billion Suns. During their lifetimes, black holes chew up their surroundings and spew out ultra-energetic beams of radiation and matter that are visible from across the Universe. In this lecture, Prof. Jonathan McKinney discusses how black holes form, outlines how they are detected, and shows movies that illustrate how they work according to Einstein and state-of-the-art computer simulations. We will see that these blackest of all objects in the Universe actually shine the brightest. Lecturer: Prof. Jonathan McKinney, Stanford University.

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    NASA | Colliding Neutron Stars Create Black Hole and Gamma-ray Burst

    3:27

    Armed with state-of-the-art supercomputer models, scientists have shown that colliding neutron stars can produce the energetic jet required for a gamma-ray burst. Earlier simulations demonstrated that mergers could make black holes. Others had shown that the high-speed particle jets needed to make a gamma-ray burst would continue if placed in the swirling wreckage of a recent merger.

    Now, the simulations reveal the middle step of the process--how the merging stars' magnetic field organizes itself into outwardly directed components capable of forming a jet. The Damiana supercomputer at Germany's Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics needed six weeks to reveal the details of a process that unfolds in just 35 thousandths of a second--less than the blink of an eye.

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    A Partnership Launching a New Generation of Space

    2:24

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    Flat Earth | The History of Outer Space Programming ▶️️

    13:29

    The History of Conditioning Humans to believe in the existence of Outer Space and Space Travel.

    Nowadays outer space is a given in everyones mind. It's virtually in every movie, video game, comic book, novel, and even music and tv shows. , causing mostly everyone to believe in outer space without question, eventhough they have never been there or seen it for themselves. Well, the truth is that we are being lied to about space travel and the very shape of our earth. Earth is a actually level & motionless plane and we've been systematically brainwashed into believing that we live on a spinning ball and that outer space is a real place that humans can go. Unfortunately for fans of outer space and space travel, it's all one big, elaborate hoax. Research Flat Earth.

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    The Birth of a Black Hole

    6:44

    How the Universe Works is a mini-series that originally aired on the Discovery Channel April 25, 2010 to May 24, 2010. It was narrated by Mike Rowe.

    This is just a small part from my favorite episode Black Holes (original air date May 2, 2010) directed by Peter Chinn.

    I can definitely recommend you to watch this amazing & fascinating TV Show. Definitely worth it. Recommended in High Definition!
    _________________________

    Black Holes Masters of the universe, Without black holes, we wouldn't be here!

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    Expanding Our Horizons: Matter, Space, and the Universe

    54:36

    This session explores the almost unfathomable scales of theoretical physics, from the mysterious properties of dark matter to the depths of our universe and beyond. Experiments, like the Large Hadron Collider near Geneva that smashes together protons at high energies, tell us about the smallest length scales we can observe today while measurements of the universe stretch our observations of large length scales to their limits. Theoretical physicists like Lisa Randall tie the results of these experiments to mysteries about our universe. Professor Randall will tell us about the Higgs boson discovery and its implications. She will also explore possibilities for the nature of dark matter and of space itself. Can there be an unseen extra dimension in our universe? Theoretical physics truly knows no bounds

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    SI-Q What animal looks like a fox, smells like a skunk and is called a wolf?

    1:45

    Nucharin Songsasen and Paul Marinari of the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute share little known facts and smelly stories about maned wolves.

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    The Violent Universe - Professor Ian Morison

    1:3:16

    A look at the most violent events that occur in our Universe, from supernovae and hypernovae to the cause of gamma ray bursts and what was the biggest explosion of all - the Big Bang origin of the Universe itself.

    The transcript and downloadable versions of the lecture are available from the Gresham College website:


    Gresham College has been giving free public lectures since 1597. This tradition continues today with all of our five or so public lectures a week being made available for free download from our website.

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    Neutron Star Collision and Gamma Ray Burst Discovery

    3:08

    From NASA Astrophysics and Goddard Space Flight Center. Every day or two, on average, satellites detect a massive explosion somewhere in the sky. These are gamma-ray bursts, the brightest blasts in the universe. They're thought to be caused by jets of matter moving near the speed of light associated with the births of black holes. Gamma-ray bursts that last longer than two seconds are the most common and are thought to result from the death of a massive star. Shorter bursts proved much more elusive.

    In fact, even some of their basic properties were unknown until NASA's Swift satellite began work in 2004. A neutron star is what remains when a star several times the mass of the sun collapses and explodes. With more than the sun's mass packed in a sphere less than 18 miles across, these objects are incredibly dense. Just a sugar-cube-size piece of neutron star can weigh as much as all the water in the Great Lakes.

    When two orbiting neutron stars collide, they merge and form a black hole, releasing enormous amounts of energy in the process. Armed with state-of-the-art supercomputer models, scientists have shown that colliding neutron stars can produce the energetic jet required for a gamma-ray burst. Earlier simulations demonstrated that mergers could make black holes. Others had shown that the high-speed particle jets needed to make a gamma-ray burst would continue if placed in the swirling wreckage of a recent merger.

    Now, the simulations reveal the middle step of the process --how the merging stars' magnetic field organizes itself into outwardly directed components capable of forming a jet. The Damiana supercomputer at Germany's Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics needed six weeks to reveal the details of a process that unfolds in just 35 thousandths of a second. The new simulation shows two neutron stars merging to form a black hole surrounded by super-hot plasma.

    On the left is a map of the density of the stars as they scramble their matter into a dense, hot cloud of swirling debris. On the right is a map of the magnetic fields, with blue representing magnetic strength a billion times greater than the sun's. The simulation shows the same disorderly behavior of the matter and magnetic fields. Both structures gradually become more organized, but what's important here is the white magnetic field. Amidst this incredible turmoil, the white field has taken on the character of a jet, although no matter is flowing through it when the simulation ends.

    Showing that magnetic fields suddenly become organized as jets provides scientists with the missing link. It confirms that merging neutron stars can indeed produce short gamma-ray bursts. At this moment, somewhere across the cosmos, it's about to happen again.

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    Monster Gamma Ray Blast Biggest Cosmic Explosion Since Big Bang

    1:10

    NASA says its satellites picked up the biggest explosion since the Big Bang. It was a gamma ray blast that came from what scientists think is a star collapsing into a black hole 3.7 billion light years away. Patrick Jones (@Patrick_E_Jones) reports.

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    Overview Animation of Gamma-ray Burst

    56

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the cosmos. Astronomers think most occur when the core of a massive star runs out of nuclear fuel, collapses under its own weight, and forms a black hole. The black hole then drives jets of particles that drill all the way through the collapsing star at nearly the speed of light. Artist's rendering.

    Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    This video is public domain and can be downloaded at:

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    CrossLines Trailer

    2:41

    Join the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center May 28-29 for CrossLines: A Culture Lab on Intersectionality, featuring over 40 artists and scholars in the historic Smithsonian Arts & Industries Building.

    The Smithsonian Arts and Industries Building opened in 1880 as the first United States National Museum. After a century in transition and over a decade under renovation, CrossLines transforms it for one weekend into a museum of the people.

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    NASA Accidentally Discovers Giant Black Holes

    2:46

    A powerful NASA telescope has found not one, but ten supermassive black holes. And it did so on accident! Trace explains what exactly black holes are and why the discovery is so awesome.

    Read More:

    About NuSTAR: The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array

    The NuSTAR mission has deployed the first orbiting telescopes to focus light in the high energy X-ray (6 - 79 keV) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Our view of the universe in this spectral window has been limited because previous orbiting telescopes have not employed true focusing optics, but rather have used coded apertures that have intrinsically high backgrounds and limited sensitivity.

    Catching Black Holes on the Fly

    NASA's black-hole-hunter spacecraft, the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, or NuSTAR, has bagged its first 10 supermassive black holes. The mission, which has a mast the length of a school bus, is the first telescope capable of focusing the highest-energy X-ray light into detailed pictures.

    NASA discovers 10 supermassive black holes ... by accident

    These black holes hide in the center of galaxies, pulling in matter around them. As matter falls in, the supermassive black hole ejects a huge burst of X-ray radiation. That's what the NuSTAR telescope detected.

    Black Holes May Have Been Common in Early Universe

    Black holes may have been abundant among the first stars in the universe, helping explain the origin of the supermassive monsters that lurk at the heart of galaxies today, researchers say.

    Black Holes: Facts, Theory & Definition

    Black holes are some of the strangest and most fascinating objects found in outer space. They are objects of extreme density, with such strong gravitational attraction that even light cannot escape from their grasp if it comes near enough.

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    Gamma Ray Bursts are the Deadliest Things in the Universe

    3:03

    #HowTheUniverseWorks
    Think of it like a cosmic ray gun. The energy released from a gamma ray burst is equivalent to a hundred trillion nuclear weapons going off every second for a hundred billion years. They can reduce planets to vapor.
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    Exploring Mercury by Spacecraft: The MESSENGER Mission

    1:14:35

    The third lecture in the 2011 Exploring Space Lecture Series featured Sean C. Solomon, the Principal Investigator for the MESSENGER mission and the Director of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

    Until recently, Mercury was the least explored of the terrestrial planets, visited only by Mariner 10 in the 1970s. MESSENGER flybys in 2008 and 2009 revealed terrain seen by spacecraft for the very first time. In March 2011, as MESSENGER went into orbit, it opened a new era of comprehensive observation and study of the innermost planet, and continues to contribute to our understanding of the nature of Mercury and why it is different from its planetary neighbors. See Mercury in a new light as Sean Solomon guides us through the latest images and results.

    Presented as a live webcast on Thursday, May 12, 2011 at 8pm ET at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC.

    For more information about past and future Exploring Space Lectures, visit

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    Public Lecture - Black Holes and the Fate of the Universe - G. Hasinger

    1:6:05

    Fifty Years of Quasars: A Symposium in Honor of Maarten Schmidt
    Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA - Sept. 9-10, 2013
    More info:
    Links to talks with video of speaker:

    Fifty years ago, the discovery of quasars transformed astronomy. Studies of quasars and other active galactic nuclei still are a major, vibrant, and developing part of astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology. This year we celebrate the 50th anniversary of this discovery, and honor Maarten Schmidt, whose insight into the nature of quasar spectra was a decisive milestone in the rise of this new field of research, in addition to his continued contributions ever since.

    The meeting consisted of invited talks only, covering various aspects of the history and the current state of quasar research.

    © 2013 California Institute of Technology

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    Viewing the Universe w Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope

    59:42

    Dr. Giovanni Fazio, from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory discusses the Spitzer Space Telescope. Launched on 25 August 2003, the telescope is producing an exciting new view of the Universe seen in infrared light. Spitzer is the fourth and final space telescope in NASA's Great Observatory series. It consists of an 85-cm telescope and three highly sensitive instruments capable of observing infrared light that allows astronomers to view regions of space invisible to optical telescopes. Spitzer's scientific results include the study of the formation and evolution of galaxies in the early Universe, understanding energy sources in ultraluminous galaxies, the study of star formation and evolution, observations of exoplanets and their atmospheres, and determining the structure and evolution of planetary disks around nearby stars. After a brief description of the Spitzer mission, results from Spitzer's extragalactic and galactic observational programs will be presented, showing many of Spitzers very spectacular images.

    This lecture was the 2009 Smithsonian Secretary's Distinguished Research Lecutre

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    Black Holes: The End of Time or a New Beginning?

    1:29:52

    November 14, 2012
    Dr. Roger Blandford (Kavli Institute, Stanford University)

    While black holes are popularly associated with death and doom, astrophysicists increasingly see them as creators, not destroyers — playing a major role in the formation and evolution of galaxies, stars, and planets. Dr. Blandford (whose research interests include black holes, galaxies, and cosmology) summarizes why scientists now think that black holes of various sizes actually do exist, describes some of their strange properties, and explains their environmental impact on the universe at large.

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    Are Gamma Ray Bursts Dangerous?

    4:28

    Gamma ray bursts are the most energetic explosions in the Universe, outshining the rest of their entire galaxy for a moment. So, it stands to reason you wouldn't want to be close when one of these goes off.

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    If comics have taught me anything, it’s that gamma powered superheroes and villains are some of the most formidable around.

    Coincidentally, Gamma Ray bursts, astronomers say, are the most powerful explosions in the Universe. In a split second, a star with many times the mass of our Sun collapses into a black hole, and its outer layers are ejected away from the core.

    Twin beams blast out of the star. They’re so bright we can see them for billions of light-years away. In a split second, a gamma ray burst can release more energy than the Sun will emit in its entire lifetime.

    It’s a super-supernova.

    You’re thinking “Heck, if the gamma exposure worked for Banner, surely a super-supernova will make me even more powerful than the Hulk.”

    That’s not exactly how this plays out.

    For any world caught within the death beam from a gamma ray burst, the effects are devastating. One side of the world is blasted with lethal levels of radiation.

    Our ozone layer would be depleted, or completely stripped away, and any life on that world would experience an extinction level event on the scale of the asteroid that wiped out the dinosaurs.

    Astronomers believe that gamma ray bursts might explain some of the mass extinctions that happened on Earth.

    The most devastating was probably one that occurred 450 million years ago causing the Ordovician–Silurian extinction event. Creatures that lived near the surface of the ocean were hit much harder than deep sea animals, and this evidence matches what would happen from a powerful gamma ray burst event.

    Considering that, are we in danger from a gamma ray burst and why didn’t we get at least one Tyrannosaurus Hulk out of the deal?

    There’s no question gamma ray bursts are terrifying. In fact, astronomers predict that the lethal destruction from a gamma ray burst would stretch for thousands of light years. So if a gamma ray burst went off within about 5000-8000 light years, we’d be in a world of trouble.

    Astronomers figure that gamma ray bursts happen about once every few hundred thousand years in a galaxy the size of the Milky Way.

    And although they can be devastating, you actually need to be pretty close to be affected.

    It has been calculated that every 5 million years or so, a gamma ray burst goes off close enough to affect life on Earth. In other words, there have been around 1,000 events since the Earth formed 4.6 billion years ago.

    So the odds of a nearby gamma ray burst aren’t zero, but they’re low enough that you really don’t have to worry about them. Unless you’re planning on living about 5 million years in some kind of gamma powered superbody.

    We might have evidence of a recent gamma ray burst that struck the Earth around the year 774. Tree rings from that year contain about 20 times the level of carbon-14 than normal. One theory is that a gamma ray burst from a star located within 13,000 light-years of Earth struck the planet 1,200 years ago, generating all that carbon-14.

    Clearly humanity survived without incident, but it shows that even if you’re halfway across the galaxy, a gamma ray burst can reach out and affect you.

    So don’t worry. The chances of a gamma ray burst hitting Earth are minimal. In fact, astronomers have observed all the nearby gamma ray burst candidates, and none seem to be close enough or oriented to point their death beams at our planet. You’ll need to worry about your exercise and diet after all.

    So what do you think? What existential crisis makes you most concerned, and how do gamma ray bursts compare?

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    A New Theory of Time - Lee Smolin

    23:43

    Is it possible that time is real, and that the laws of physics are not fixed? Lee Smolin, A C Grayling, Gillian Tett, and Bronwen Maddox explore the implications of such a profound re-think of the natural and social sciences, and consider how it might impact the way we think about surviving the future.

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    Our Galactic Center - Reinhard Genzel edited

    1:1:39

    Abstract: Evidence has been accumulating for several decades that many galaxies harbor central mass concentrations that may be in the form of black holes with masses between a few million to a few billion time the mass of the Sun.

    Dr. Genzel will discuss measurements over the last two decades, employing adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes that prove the existence of such a massive black hole in the Center of our Milky Way, beyond any reasonable doubt. These data also provide key insights into its properties and environment. Most recently, a tidally disrupting cloud of gas has been discovered on an almost radial orbit that reached its peri-distance of ~2000 Schwarzschild radii in 2014, promising to be a valuable tool for exploring the innermost accretion zone. Future interferometric studies of the Galactic Center Black hole promise to be able to test gravity in its strong field limit.

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    Letters From Camp by Frank Chi

    2:32

    Sponsored by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center and created by filmmaker Frank Chi, this short film features letters that young Japanese Americans in World War II incarceration camps sent to Clara Breed, a librarian in San Diego.

    Excerpts from the letters are read by contemporary Muslim American youth standing beside Japanese American camp survivors. The survivors remain silent as the young people read stories that parallel their own hopes and fears.

    This video will be featured in the center's event CrossLines: A Culture Lab on Intersectionality, on May 28 and 29 at the Arts & Industries Building. Learn more at

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    Something Big Came OUT Of A Black Hole Recently! Scientists Baffled 3/15/16

    6:39


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    The Oldest Question: Is There Life Beyond Earth?

    1:14:12

    Christopher D. Impey, Distinguished Professor, Astronomy/Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona. Presented March 8, 2011.

    Our reconstruction of the chronology of events that led to the origin of the Earth and subsequent chemical evolution on our planet informs us that nothing unusual was required for the origin and development of terrestrial life, and that therefore life may be pervasive throughout the cosmos. Whether extraterrestrial life exists is so ancient and beguiling a question that humankind is actively seeking the answer in its explorations of the planetary systems in our solar system. It may one day transpire that we discover that genesis has occurred, independently, not once but twice in our solar system. At that point, we could safely infer that life is a fundamental feature of our universe ... along with dark matter, supernovae, and black holes.

    Cosmic Origins is the story of the universe but it's also our story. Hear about origin of space and time, mass and energy, the atoms in our bodies, the compact objects where matter can end up, and the planets and moons where life may flourish. Modern cosmology includes insights and triumphs, but mysteries remain. Join the six speakers who will explore cosmology's historical and cultural backdrop to explain the discoveries that speak of our cosmic origins.

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    Death From Space — Gamma-Ray Bursts Explained

    7:14

    Use the URL: for 10% with a new website and support this channel. Also make your life easier. Thanks a lot to Squarespace for supporting the show!

    There are cosmic snipers firing at random into the unvierse. What are they and what happens if they hit us?

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    Death From Space — Gamma-Ray Bursts Explained

    Help us caption & translate this video!

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    Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Interstellar

    1:14:25

    For decades, Dr. Kip Thorne, the physicist behind the movie Interstellar and the man who imagined wormholes, has imagined, reinvented, and changed the ways prominent physicists and just plain folks think about the workings of the universe. Hear him speak about the stranger-than-fiction science of general relativity that is the underpinning of one of the century's must-see movies, on the 100th anniversary of Einstein's incredible discovery.

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    Small asteroid fell from space 🌠

    1:08

    A small asteroid estimated at 5 feet (1-2 meters) in diameter - with a mass of a few tons and a kinetic energy of approximately half a kiloton - entered Earth's atmosphere above Arizona just before 4 a.m. local (MST) time. NASA estimates that the asteroid was moving at about 40,200 miles per hour (64,700 kilometers per hour).

    The NASA Meteoroid Environments Office (MEO) monitors the small rock (meteoroid) environment near Earth in order to assess the risks posed to spacecraft by these bits of tiny space debris. As part of this effort, it operates a network of meteor cameras within the U.S. that are capable of detecting meteors brighter than the planet Jupiter. Three of these cameras are in southern Arizona.

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    Hearts of Darkness: Black Holes in Space

    1:56:12

    May 19, 2010
    Dr. Alex Filippenko (University of California, Berkeley)
    Black holes are regions of space where gravity is so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape! No longer confined to the imaginations of science-fiction writers and theoretical physicists, black holes have recently been discovered in large numbers by observational astronomers. Learn about the remarkable properties of these bizarre objects from one of the finest explainers in the field of astronomy.

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    The Secret Life of Orchids – Part III: Conservation

    1:03

    Orchids account for 10 percent of the world’s plant species, making them the largest plant family. They act as indicators of the health of ecosystems and other species around them. That’s why understanding what’s necessary for their survival and investing in their conservation is important.

    To learn more about native orchid conservation, visit the North American Orchid Conservation Center at

    For 50 years, scientists at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center have been leading research to meet the environmental challenges of the 21st century.

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    Fay Dowker Public Lecture - Spacetime Atoms and the Unity of Physics

    1:12:29

    Fay Dowker speaks at a Perimeter Institute Public Lecture on November 2, 2011.

    Black holes are hot! This discovery made by Stephen Hawking ties together gravity, spacetime, quantum matter, and thermal systems into the beautiful and exciting science of Black Hole Thermodynamics. Its beauty lies in the powerful way it speaks of the unity of physics. The excitement arises because it tells us that there is something lacking in our understanding of spacetime and, at the same time, gives us a major clue as to what the missing ingredient should be. Theoretical physicists at Perimeter Institute and elsewhere are pioneering a proposal, known as Causal Set Theory, for the structure held by these most fundamental atoms of spacetime. In this talk, Professor Dowker describes black hole thermodynamics and argue that it is telling us that spacetime itself is granular or atomic at very tiny scales.

    More Perimeter Public Lectures can be found at:

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    The Art of Creation With Michael Joo

    2:01

    Meet Michael Joo, a Smithsonian Artist Research Fellow and creator of Collective, currently on display at the Freer Sackler Gallery of Asian Art. Learn where he draws inspiration and what it means to have his work displayed at the Smithsonian.

    For more information on Michael, our Freer Sackler Gallery or other Smithsonian work, check out:

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    Gamma Ray Bursts and Recent Results from the Fermi Mission - Peter Michelson

    1:4:41

    Dr. Michelson is the Principal Investigator of the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Observatory.

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Observatory scans the entire sky once every three hours. It has revealed many types of high-energy sources including gamma-ray bursts, many types of pulsars, active galaxies, and binary systems.

    In this talk Dr. Michelson will give an overview of Fermi’s discoveries and offer speculation of what might be found next, including possible sources of gravitational radiation.

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    Gamma-Ray Bursts: Crash Course Astronomy #40

    14:05

    Gamma-ray bursts are not only incredible to study, but their discovery has an epic story all its own. Today Phil takes you through some Cold War history and then dives into what we know. Bursts come in two rough varieties: Long and short. Long ones are from hypernovae, massive stars exploding, sending out twin beams of matter and energy. Short ones are from merging neutron stars. Both kinds are so energetic they are visible for billions of light years, and both are also the birth announcements of black holes.

    Crash Course Astronomy Poster:

    --

    Table of Contents
    Gamma-Ray Were Discovered During the Cold War 0:47
    Bursts Come in Two Varieties: Long and Short 8:35
    Long Bursts Are From Hypernovae, Massive Stars Exploding 6:46
    Short Ones Are From Merging Neutron Stars 9:00
    Both Are The Birthplace of Black holes 9:55

    --

    PBS Digital Studios:

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    PHOTOS/VIDEOS
    Nuclear Bomb Images via Wikimedia Commons:
    Operation Upshot Knothole
    Ivy Mike
    Castle Bravo
    Upshot Knothole GRABLE
    President Kennedy signs the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty [credit: Wikimedia Commons]
    Vela [credit: USAF]
    The Crab Nebula [credit: NASA, ESA, J. Hester, A. Loll (ASU)]
    Solar Flare [credit: NASA/SDO/AIA]
    Gamma Ray Burst [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab]
    Four ALMA antennas on the Chajnantor plain [credit: ESO/José Francisco Salgado (josefrancisco.org)]
    Gamma Ray Burst 970228 [credit: Andrew Fruchter (STScI), Elena Pian (ITSRE-CNR), and NASA/ESA]
    HST/STIS Image of the optical afterglow of w:GRB 970508 [credit: STScI/NASA]
    Black Holes: Monsters in Space [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech]
    Naked-Eye Gamma-ray Burst Model for GRB 080319B [credit: NASA/Swift/Cruz deWilde]
    2008 GRB [credit: NASA/Swift/Stefan Immler, et al.]
    GRB Data [credit: NASA]
    Imagine two massive stars born together as a binary star [credit: NASA/GSFC/D. Berry]
    Colliding Binary Neutron stars [credit: NASA/D.Berry]
    Black Hole Devours a Neutron Star [credit: NASA/D.Berry]
    Eta Carinae [credit: Jon Morse (University of Colorado) & NASA Hubble Space Telescope]
    WR 104: A Pinwheel Star System [credit: P. Tuthill (U. Sydney) & J. Monnier (U. Michigan), Keck Obs., ARC, NSF]
    Swift HD Beauty Shot [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center]
    Swift's 500 Gamma-ray Bursts [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center]

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    SI-Q What ate the South?

    44

    Ashley N. Egan, research botanist and assistant curator at Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History answers: What ate the South?

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    Public Lecture—Space: The Hunt for Hidden Dimensions

    1:16:28

    Lecture Date: Tuesday, April 25, 2006. Extra dimensions of space may be present in our universe. Their discovery would dramatically change our view of the cosmos and would prompt many questions. How do they hide? What is their shape? How many are there? How big are they? Do particles and forces feel their presence?

    This lecture will explain the concept of dimensions and show that current theoretical models predict the existence of extra spatial dimensions which could be in the discovery reach of present and near-term experiments. The manner by which these additional dimensions reveal their existence will be described. Searches for modifications of the gravitational force, astrophysical effects, and collider signatures already constrain the size of extra dimensions and will be summarized. Once new dimensions are discovered, the technology by which the above questions can be answered will be discussed. Lecturer: JoAnne Hewett, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

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    Pulsars, Magnetars, Black Holes : The Wickedly Cool Stellar Undead

    1:34:47

    The biggest stars burn the fastest and brightest, and when they die, they do so spectacularly, exploding as supernovae and leaving behind some of the most fantastic objects in the universe: neutron stars and black holes. In this public science talk recorded at James Madison University on April 17, 2014, Dr. Scott Ransom (NRAO/UVa) discussed how these crazy objects are created, some of their amazing properties and why we (probably!) don't need to worry about them too much here in our cozy homes on Earth.

    To learn more about our public science presentations, and to be informed, when our next ones will take place, please visit our website:

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    The History of the Universe in One Hour

    50:33

    Max Tegmark, Professor of Physics at MIT, gives a grand tour of the universe, ending with a discussion of parallel universes. With the help of a cosmic flight simulator, he starts with a quick tour of our Milky Way galaxy, moves back through space and time to the Big Bang beginning, and then proceeds through the evolution of the universe, ending with a discussion of some of the big questions that concern modern astrophysics. This lecture was presented by Science for the Public and recorded on 12/13/11. View more lectures at:

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    What Is Sidedoor?

    1:14

    More than 154 million treasures fill the Smithsonian’s vaults, but where public view ends, Sidedoor begins. With the help of biologists, artists, historians, archaeologists, zookeepers and astrophysicists, host Tony Cohn sneaks listeners through Smithsonian’s side door to search for stories that can’t be found anywhere else. Check out si.edu/sidedoor and follow @SidedoorPod for more info.

    Subscribe to Sidedoor on Apple Podcasts or wherever you get your shows.

    Animation and Illustration | Will McHenry:
    Illustration | René Moffatt:
    Music | Breakmaster Cylinder:

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    Mission Juno - Great documentary on Jupiter and NASAs Juno probe

    1:4:23

    Great video explaining the science of Jupiter and the exciting Juno mission. Features interviews with scientists and engineers working on the probe with interesting computer-generated imagery of the mission.

    Explains the science of the solar system, why this mission matters, the instruments on board and the scientists and engineers behind this mission.

    Read much more at the source of this documentary,

    I downloaded hundreds of 1 minute videos and combined, so the documentary changes style a bit and is a little long-winded. Once it gets long-winded stop watching, skim through it or even better watch 2x speed!

    The probe arrived at Jupiter on July 4th 2016. (Launched August 5 2011)

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    Cosmic Quandaries with Dr. Neil deGrasse Tyson

    1:28:01



    An out of this world event, Cosmic Quandaries, held at The Palladium in St. Petersburg at 7 p.m. on Wednesday, March 26th drew in an audience of nearly 800! With a one in a million chance of meeting one of only 6,000 astrophysicists in the world, audience members were lined up in order to have the opportunity to ask Dr. Neil deGrasse Tyson a question on any and all galactic wonders they may have.

    About St. Petersburg College:
    In 1927, St. Petersburg College (then known as St. Petersburg Junior College) became Florida's first private, non-profit, two-year school of higher learning located in downtown St. Petersburg. Full accreditation followed in 1931 and in 1948 SPC became a public college.
    In June 2001, SPJC officially became St. Petersburg College when Florida's governor signed legislation making it the first community college in Florida to offer four-year degrees. On Dec. 11, 2001, the college received the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools' accreditation to offer courses leading to bachelor's degrees.
    In 2002, St. Petersburg College began offering courses leading to bachelor's degrees in Education, Nursing and Technology Management. The college's commitment to its two-year curriculum, which has earned it wide recognition and annually wins it high national rankings, remains as strong as ever.
    Today, SPC has eight learning sites throughout Pinellas County and recently became the first college in Florida to offer a four-year degree in Dental Hygiene. This program's offerings augment its two-year program, which has been in operation since 1963. SPC added four-year degrees in Veterinary Technology, Public Safety Administration and Orthotics and Prosthetics in 2005.
    College Accreditation
    St. Petersburg College is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award associates degrees and to offer courses leading to bachelor's degrees in the following areas: Banking, Nursing, Business Administration, Orthotics & Prosthetics, Elementary/Secondary Education, Paralegal Studies. Educational Studies. Post-Baccalaureate Teacher Certification. Dental Hygiene. Public Safety Administration. Health Services Administration. Sustainability Management. International Business. Technology Management. Management & Organizational Leadership. Veterinary Technology.

    SPC also offers access to junior and senior level courses for bachelors and graduate degrees at the University Partnership Center. The UPC partners with the University of South Florida, University of South Florida at St. Petersburg, Eckerd College, University of Florida, Florida State University, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, University of Central Florida, Florida International University, Florida A&M University, Saint Leo University, Florida Gulf Coast University, Florida Institute of Technology, Barry University, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland State University, Indiana University, and St. Petersburg College.

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