Earth's Systems and How they Work

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    Earths Systems and How they Work


    Notes for Mr. Dove's APES Class. This is an introduction to the Earth's major systems and how they work.

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    How does the climate system work?


    An animation to explain how the climate system works.

    For more information on weather and climate, visit

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    Big Idea 3: Earths Systems Interact


    Observe the events that show how Earth works as a set of interconnected systems.

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    How Earth Moves


    It’s here! Science stuff, mind-blowing stuff, Vsauce stuff, oh my!! THE CURIOSITY BOX:

    Jake’s video about The Curiosity Box:

    Minute Physics on why December days are the longest:

    StandUpMaths on calendars and leap days:

    Tom Scott on the Equation of Time:

    My video on what would happen if the Earth stopped spinning:

    GREAT visuals showing how Earth moves around the sun:

    George Washington’s birthday:

    real-time sub solar point location:

    Lahaina noon images from the Oahu Astrophotography club:


    great solargraph and analemma images:

    interactive seasons and ecliptic simulator:

    Nasa video of seasonal movement of Earth:

    Tropical year:

    Earth rotation specifics:

    How Earth moves through the universe:

    minute physics on cab:

    PBS spacetime on the cosmic microwave background:

    CMB rest frame:


    wikicommons images:

    To explore space, I highly recommend these:

    music by

    Awesome 3D graphics by Eric Langlay:
    Lame 2D stuff by me.

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    How Do Tides Work?


    Most people are already familiar with the idea of high and low tides, but where do they come from? What causes this movement and why does it occur with such regularity? Tune in as Josh demystifies the rise and fall of the sea.

    Whether the topic is popcorn or particle physics, you can count on the HowStuffWorks team to explore - and explain - the everyday science in the world around us on BrainStuff.

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    25 Earth Shattering Facts About Gravity


    Gravity is one of the greatest mysteries in science. How does it work? Although we know it exists and can see its effects science has a hard time explaining the exact mechanism. At first we thought we understood it. At least after Newton formulated his laws and we believed we had the universe figured out. But then Einstein came along and completely changed our view of the cosmos and of physics. Since then we have discovered some crazy things about quantum mechanics and how the world works on a microscopic level. Unfortunately, while Newtonian models do a good job of describing things like gravity between large objects, they don't do very well describing forces between atoms. And while Einstein's theory of relativity gives us insight into the microscopic world of the molecule, it doesn't really do a good job in other areas. So it seems that we have several ways of describing the same thing but no real understanding of why or how it works. Over time, numerous theories have been put forth, and most of them have been found lacking. So, although we cannot fully describe it, gravity causes some crazy things to happen. It's not as simple as just pulling things towards each other. Did you know that gravity affects time? These are 25 Earth shattering facts about gravity!

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    Check out the physical list here:

    Because of gravity, humans get the urge to pee when their bladder is about 1/3 full

    In space, astronauts don't have the urge to pee until their bladder is basically exploding

    Einsteins most revolutionary equation wasn't e=mc2 (unless you are designing nuclear bombs). His most important equation was G = 8 π T, which basically stated that space-time is curved and not flat

    Humans could successfully colonize and live on planets with up to 3 times the gravity of Earth. At 4 times the gravity, however, blood flow to the brain would be impaired

    Earth's gravitational pull makes it impossible for mountains to be taller than 15km (in theory)

    There are regions in space where gravity between the Sun and Earth (or any other two objects) interact to create something called Lagrangian points. Other objects can orbit around these points as if there were something there.

    Birds cannot be taken into space because they require gravity to swallow

    During the final Apollo 15 moonwalk, David Scott dropped both a feather and a hammer to confirm Galileo's theory that objects fall at the same speed regardless of their mass (on Earth the feather falls more slowly only because of air resistance)

    Jupiter is sometimes referred to as a failed star because although it had enough mass to pull in a significant amount of gas, it didn't gain enough to start fusion

    Jupiter's gravity will eventually either push Mercury out of the Solar System or send it crashing into the Sun

    And more...

    Music: Hypnothis by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (

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    Complexity Science: 9 Earth Systems Science


    A brief overview to the area of Earth Systems Science where we will be looking at the different spheres that make up Earth as a complex adaptive system. For full courses, transcriptions and downloads please see:

    Earth systems science is the interdisciplinary study of earth as a complex system, composed of multiple physical and biological process that interact within cycles or spheres to give rise to the overall state of the earth as an entire systems.

    Of cause people have been studying earth for a long time, geologies study the formation of rocks, metrologies are interested in the atmosphere and so on,
    With all of these different domains supported by the deep understanding of our physical environment that physics has built up over the past few centuries.

    But it is only more recently that satellites have started to allow us to see earth as an entirety and human activity has begun to have a significant enough effect to alter earth systems making it increasingly important for us to be able to model and manage them.

    From space we can view the net results of earths complex interactions and with high-tech sensors on land and in the ocean, we are getting an clear idea of its overall make up, from this researchers in different domains are discovering how their pieces of the puzzle are related to each other.

    Earth systems science then tries to develop models that gives an integrated picture of how all these parts fit together, the first of these models is of earth as a systems in space with inputs and outputs of energy or radiation from the sun, with this energy being the primary factor in driving the dynamics process within the system.

    As opposed to focusing on the static properties of earths individual components
    Earth systems science instead takes a more dynamic view of the world, studying the ways energy and materials cycle through the different subsystems or what are called -spheres

    Earths different sphere are largely defined by the different phases of mater they are composed of thus the atmosphere is composed of gasses, the hydrosphere of liquid water and the lithosphere solid minerals added to this is the biosphere
    The sum of all biological material and processes.

    Within each sphere a process called a cycles take place, for example in the lithosphere we have the rock cycle driven by the thermal energy within earth's interior that releases minerals through ocean ridges and volcanoes that are weathered as they cycle through earths crust and are eventual subducted returning to their origin

    The hydro cycle driven by the thermal energy of the sun, cycles water between the earths surface and atmosphere through the process of evaporation, condensation and precipitation, this process helps to distribute moisture to support ecosystems at a variety of locations

    The atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet that is held in place by gravity, it is the primary vehicle of temperature and climate regulation through the Cycle of carbon in and out of the atmosphere where it functions, through the green house effect to trap the suns heart.

    The biosphere is the relatively thin layer of Earth's surface that supports all biological activity on earth. The biosphere is a system also characterized by the continuous cycling of matter and energy in the form of the flow of solar energy and nutrient mineral cycles.

    Solar energy flows through the biosphere along a unidirectional path, as the suns energy is inputted through plant photosynthesis and process up through what are called trophic levels form primary producers to herbivores and on to predators and apex predators.

    Along side the flow of energy through food webs it the cycling of mineral nutrients the core substances required for the construction of biological materials and processes, carbon, water, oxygen, nitrogen have been continuously cycled through the biosphere from one generation to the next for billions of years

    These different spheres interact to create a unique state or ecosystem, an ecosystems is the combination of a community of biological organism and a particular physical environment with which they interact...

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    Is Earth Actually Flat?


    Flat Earth gravity simulation by Yeti Dynamics:

    Kansas flatness study: (the pancakes used in the study were from IHOP):

    the flatness of other states:

    The Meaning Of It All by Richard Feynman:

    “The Pig That Wants to Be Eaten”:

    related Vsauce video, “Is Anything Real?”

    Minutphysics “TOP 10 REASONS Why We Know the Earth is Round”

    Good satirical series about how the Earth IS flat:

    What if Earth was a cube?

    MYTH of the round Earth:

    Earth is round:

    Varrazano bridge:

    Varrazano spelling controversy:

    Flat Earth Society:

    Wilbur Glen Voliva:

    Flat earth map (one theory):

    Poe’s Law:

    Science is always provisional and theories are never conclusively proven:

    Asimov on being “more wrong”:

    Occam’s Razor:

    Newton’s flaming laser sword:

    Other razors:

    relativistic length contractions:

    I really liked this one:

    Earth and cosmic ray perspective:

    wolfram contraction simulator:

    Susan Haack:

    1996 election NYT crossword:

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    How Low Earth Orbiting Satellite Systems Work


    A quick look at how Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellite systems work, their pros and cons, and other tips you should know.

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    Solar System History: How Was the Earth Formed? - Full Documentary HD


    --- ABDH Media - Space ---

    It's astonishing what you can achieve with just a bit of gas and dust. Kate Ravilious guides us through the birth of our solar system

    It all started with a tremendous bang. Somewhere in our galaxy a star exploded, throwing out masses of gas and dust. This supernova, as these explosions are called, happened about 5bn years ago. The wreckage from the explosion then crashed into a nearby cloud of gas, bringing together the ingredients for our solar system to form.

    Because the explosion was so energetic it made the dust mixture very hot and things began to cook. Little bits of dust began to cluster, making bigger and bigger lumps, and the mixture began to pull together under its own gravity.

    Eventually the central lump became so hot and dense that it started to generate its own energy, igniting nuclear fires. This was the birth of our sun. The remaining dusty mixture swirled around the star, fanning out into a disc.

    Gradually the sun grew in size and the dusty disc cooled. Over millions of years the dust clustered into grains, then lumps, boulders and eventually planetesimals - chunks of rock big enough to have their own gravitational field. Some of these planetesimals became the embryonic forms of the planets in our solar system today.

    Slowly these rocky planets began to organise themselves, settling at a comfortable distance from the sun and finding their own orbit. Earth found its path as third planet from the sun. In the early days rocky pile-ups were still common, leaving craters on the surface of all of the planets.

    One of these collisions, about 4.5bn years ago, is thought to have very nearly destroyed the Earth, and was probably responsible for our moon. A large planetesimal, about the size of Mars, gave Earth a glancing blow, chucking a chunk of Earth's crust out into space. Some of the planetesimal merged with Earth, while the ejected lump started its own orbit around Earth and became the moon.

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    Here Comes the Sun: Crash Course Kids #5.1


    Updated with fix. Thanks for pointing that out!!! :)

    Every hear of Sol? Sure you have! It's our Sun! It sits at the center of our 8 planet solar system, providing us with heat and light. But how does that energy get to us? In this episode of Crash Course Kids, Sabrina chats about the sun; what it is, how it works, and how the energy gets to us here on Earth.

    This first series is based on 5th grade science. We're super excited and hope you enjoy Crash Course Kids!

    ///Standards Used in This Video///
    5-PS3-1. Use models to describe that energy in animals’ food (used for body repair, growth, motion, and to maintain body warmth) was once energy from the sun.

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    How Do Satellites Get & Stay in Orbit?


    SciShow Space takes you into Low Earth Orbit to explain how artificial satellites get up there and stay there -- at least for a while.
    Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records:

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    Solar and lunar eclipses, explained


    How solar and lunar eclipses work.

    Subscribe to our channel!


    Red Robot/Reuters:

    Internet Archive:




    Dmitry Chulkov:

    Marc Aragnou:

    Mike McCabe:

    Jason Grube:

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    HOW IT WORKS: The International Space Station


    This educational video describes how the International Space Station works and operates. In Earth's orbit, NASA Astronaut Sunita (Suni) Williams tours and describes how International Space Station's internal structure is divided into two pressurized modules, the Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) and the United States Orbital Segment (USOS). The ESA (European Space Agency) also uses the International Space Station for research and experiments. The International Space Station maintains an orbit with an altitude of between 330 and 435 km (205 and 270 mi) by means of re-boost maneuvers using the engines of the Zvezda module or other visiting spacecraft. It completes 15.54 orbits around the earth per day. Sunita Lyn Suni Williams is an American astronaut of Indian-Slovenian descent and holds records for total spacewalks and spacewalk time by a woman.

    For more online information on the International Space Station go:

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    Planets in our solar system | Sun and solar system | Solar System for children | 8 planets elearnin


    Planets in our solar system | Sun and solar system | Solar System for children | elearnin

    The Solar System consists of the Sun and its planetary system of eight planets, their moons, and other objects including asteroids and meteors. Our planet Earth is one among the eight planets that revolve around the Sun.
    It's called solar system because the word solar means relating to the sun. Since Sun is the centre most part of this system, it is called solar system.

    Objects seem to smaller in size when seen from a great distance but are very huge and large in reality.
    Similarly, the moon and stars are very big and huge in size, but appear to be smaller in size to our eyes because they are very very far away from the Earth, where we live. The distance between the objects in the solar system is so large that these numbers would run into millions and billions of kms. Hence they are measured with a specific unit called light year. One light year is exactly 9460730472580800 mts. Sun is 149,600,000 km away from earth. Sun is very far from the Earth. That is the reason why sun looks smaller in size.
    Solar system is the family of the sun. Sun is very big compared to the moon, probably around 400 times bigger. Sun is also a star but, remember, it's not the biggest star in the Universe. There are lots of stars present in the universe which are very far away from the sun, some of them about thousands of light years away. That is why stars look like dots in the night sky.
    Sun is like a ball of fire. The sunlight from the sun takes about 8.5 minutes to reach the surface of the earth.
    Sun is the center of the solar system and all the planets revolve around the sun in orbits. Orbit is a curved path of an object around a point in space. Orbit means moving around in Roman.
    Earth is one of the planets in the solar system and takes exactly 365.25 days to revolve around the sun. Earth also rotates around its own axis in 24 hours or 1 day. Just like Earth every planet rotates on its own axis and revolves around the Sun.

    Mercury: Mercury is the smallest of all planets, it is every hot as it is the closest to the sun, hence no living being can live on this planet. Mercury was named after a roman god Mercury who is the fast flying messenger. Mercury takes only 88 days to revolve around the sun, which makes it the fastest revolving planet around the sun.
    Venus: Venus is the second closest planet to the Sun. Venus is visible in morning and evening as the brightest star from earth. Venus takes about 244.7 days to orbit around the sun and is named after the roman goddess of love and beauty.
    Earth: Our planet Earth is the third closest planet to the Sun. It is blue in color as there is lot of water present on the surface of earth. Water constitutes to about 70% of entire surface on the earth. Unlike Earth, moon is not a planet. It is a natural satellite of earth and it revolves around the earth. Satellite is a smaller body which rotates around another rotating body. Earth is the only planet which has animals, trees and human beings.
    Mars: Mars is called the red planet because it's red in color. This red color is due to the presence of a chemical called iron oxide. Mars is named after the roman god of war. It two moons that in turn revolve around it.
    Jupiter: Jupiter is the biggest and largest planet of the solar system and is named after roman god Jupiter. Jupiter is 317 times the mass of Earth. Jupiter may have all the rocky core of the heavier elements making it the biggest and the heaviest planet. Outer atmosphere of Jupiter is divided into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in storms. Jupiter has around 67 moons revolving around it. These are natural satellites of Jupiter.
    Saturn: Saturn is the only planet has rings around it. Saturn is named after the roman god for agriculture. Saturn has just over 95 times mass as compared to the earth. The rings around the Saturn are mostly composed of the ice particles and some rocky debris and some dust. Saturn has around 62 moons revolving around it.
    Uranus: Uranus is similar to Neptune and is named after the Greek god of sky Ouranos. It has around 27 natural satellites revolving around it. The Uranus is a unique as compared to the other planets because of the fact that its axis of rotation is tilted sideways unlike the other planets. Its looks bluish-green in color because the atmosphere of Uranus is very cold and cloudy.
    Neptune: This is the farthest planet from the sun. It is about 17 times the size of earth. Neptune is light blue in color because it is the coldest of all planets. Neptune is the densest of all planets. It is named after the roman god for sea.
    There was another planetary object called Pluto which was the 9th planet but is no more considered a planet because Pluto and its moons are now considered to be a region.This region extends from the orbit of Neptune.

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    Plate Tectonics Explained


    How do plate tectonics REALLY work?

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    Anderson, D. L. (2001). Top-down tectonics?. Science, 293(5537), 2016-2018.

    Conrad, C. P., & Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. (2002). How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics. Science, 298(5591), 207-209.

    Conrad, C.P., 2014. Personal Communication

    Dietz, R. S. (1961). Continent and ocean basin evolution by spreading of the sea floor. Nature, 190(4779), 854-857.

    Forsyth, D., & Uyeda, S. (1975). On the relative importance of the driving forces of plate motion. Geophysical Journal International, 43(1), 163-200.

    Hecht, J. 2014, Aug 29. Earth's tectonic plates have doubled their speed. New Scientist.

    Smil, V. 2007. Energy in Nature and Society: General Energetics of Complex Systems. MIT Press.

    Driving forces of plate tectonics (website):

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    Tides: Crash Course Astronomy #8


    Today Phil explores the world of tides! What is the relationship between tides and gravity? How do planets and their moons become tidally locked? What would happen if you were 300km tall? Important questions.


    Gravity Over Distance 0:44
    Tidal Force Parameters 1:35
    Battle of the Bulges 2:55
    Tidal Lock 6:17


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    Photo & video credit: NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio
    Photo credit: NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio

    The Hopewell Rocks -

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    Mind Blowing! ...Earth Compared To The Rest Of The Universe - Amazing Graphic Presentation


    Check out more awesome BuzzFeedBlue videos!

    “There are more stars in our Universe than there are grains of sand on all the beaches on Earth.” There are 100 to 400 billion stars in the Milky Way and more than 100 billion galaxies in the Universe – maybe as many as 500 billion. If you multiply stars by galaxies, at the low end, you get 10 billion billion stars, or 10 sextillion stars in the Universe – a 1 followed by 22 zeros. At the high end, it’s 200 sextillion.

    These are mind bogglingly huge numbers. How do they compare to the number of grains of sand on the collective beaches of an entire planet? This type of sand measures about a half millimeter across.

    You could put 20 grains of sand packed in side-by-side to make a centimeter. 8000 grains in one cubic centimeter. If you took 10 sextillion grains of sand, put them into a ball, it would have a radius of 10.6 kilometers. And for the high end of our estimate, 200 sextillion, it would be 72 kilometers across. If we had a sphere bigger than the Earth, it would be an easy answer, but no such luck. This might be close.

    So, is there that much sand on all the beaches, everywhere, on this planet? You’d need to estimate the average volume of a sandy beach and the average amount of the world’s coastlines which are beaches.

    The estimates and calculations made by Dr. Jason Marshall, aka, the Math Dude are that, there about 700 trillion cubic meters of beach of Earth, and that works out to around 5 sextillion grains of sand.

    Music: Doggy (Spacey Pooch Mix) by Dhruva Aliman

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    Earth System Science 1: Intro to ESS. Lecture 1. Introduction and the Scientific Method


    UCI ESS 1: Introduction to Earth System Science (Fall 2013)
    Lec 01. Introduction to Earth System Science -- Introduction and the Scientific Method --
    View the complete course:

    Instructor: Julie Ferguson, Ph.D.

    License: Creative Commons CC-BY-SA
    Terms of Use:
    More courses at

    Description: Earth System Science covers the following topics: the origin and evolution of the Earth, atmosphere, oceans, perspective of biogeochemical cycles, energy use, and human impacts on the Earth system.

    Recorded on September 27, 2013

    Required attribution: Ferguson, Julie. Introduction to Earth System Science 1 (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 United States License. (

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    Day and Night Explanation,Causes Science for Kids


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    Why Do Rivers Curve?


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    Ferreira da Silva, A. M. (2006). On why and how do rivers meander.

    Howard, A. D. (2009). How to make a meandering river. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(41), 17245-17246.

    Howard, A. D., & Knutson, T. R. (1984). Sufficient conditions for river meandering: A simulation approach. Water Resources Research, 20(11), 1659-1667.

    Leopold, L. B., & Wolman, M. G. (1960). River meanders. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 71(6), 769-793.

    Parker, H. (1996). River Meandering as Self-Organization Process. Science,271, 1710.

    Rhoads, B. L., & Welford, M. R. (1991). Initiation of river meandering. Progress in Physical Geography, 15(2), 127-156.

    Schwenk, Jon. Interview. 9 July 2014.

    Seminara, G. (2006). Meanders. Journal of fluid mechanics, 554, 271-297.

    Stølum, H. H. (1998). Planform geometry and dynamics of meandering rivers.Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110(11), 1485-1498.

    Video and Image Credits

    Waterfalls Cascading - Courtesy Shutterstock

    Rio cauto Cuba - Public Domain Photo

    Tiger Leaping Gorge - Courtesy Shutterstock

    River coming from mountain - Google Earth
    42°21'35.72 S 173°34'30.41 E

    Meandering River - Google Earth Engine

    Under Water 2 - Ken Mankoff

    Oxbow Lake Australia - GoogleEarth
    23°41'31.06 S 150°47'53.91 E

    Oxbow Lake Colombia - GoogleEarth
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    Oxbow Lake France - Google Earth
    46°55'24.16 N   5°19'28.34 E

    Dry Oxbow Lake Colorado - Google Earth
    32°00'06.80 N 115°07'19.81 O

    Martian Rivers on Aeolis Planum - NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

    Mars Rover Curiosity - Public Domain Image

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    What Physics Teachers Get Wrong About Tides! | Space Time | PBS Digital Studios


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    We all know tides have something to do with gravity from the Moon and Sun, but if gravity affects the motion of all objects equally, then how come oceans have large tides while other bodies of water don't? It's because your mental picture of the tides is probably WRONG!!! Join Gabe on this week’s episode of PBS Space Time as he sets the record straight on tidal force, gravitational differential and what role the moon actually plays in tides. Why don't lakes have tides? Watch the episode to find out!

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    The Coriolis Effect


    Why do storms spin in different directions depending on their location—and why do they spin in the first place?

    Play the Cloud Lab:

    Find discussion questions for this video and other resources in the Cloud Lab collection on PBS LearningMedia:

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    How do solar panels work? - Richard Komp


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    The Earth intercepts a lot of solar power: 173,000 terawatts. That’s 10,000 times more power than the planet’s population uses. So is it possible that one day the world could be completely reliant on solar energy? Richard Komp examines how solar panels convert solar energy to electrical energy.

    Lesson by Richard Komp, animation by Globizco.

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    The Best Documentary Ever!! - The Story Of Earth And Life


    The best documentary to watch high and sober.

    The Earth might seem solid beneath our feet but five billion years ago there was no sign of the planet we call home. Instead there was only a new star and a cloud of dust in our solar system. Over millions of years, a series of violent changes led to the formation of our world and, eventually, the creation of life.

    In this photorealistic CGI epic, see how a boiling ball of rock transformed into the blue planet we know today. Explore every aspect of our world; learn how water first arrived on Earth, discover the vital role oxygen played as life forms began to evolve, and find out how land mammals evolved into dinosaurs and other giant beasts, before becoming extinct 65 million years ago.

    Cutting-edge imagery also reveals how humans first began to walk on two feet and looks into the future to see what may be in store for our home over the next five billion years.

    National Geographic: The Story of Earth (TV 2011) TV Movie - Documentary

    best documentary, earth documentary, life documentary, greatest documentary ever, stoner documentary, evolution, big bang, space.

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    The Immune System Explained I – Bacteria Infection


    Every second of your life you are under attack. Bacteria, viruses, spores and more living stuff wants to enter your body and use its resources for itself. The immune system is a powerful army of cells that fights like a T-Rex on speed and sacrifices itself for your survival. Without it you would die in no time. This sounds simple but the reality is complex, beautiful and just awesome. An animation of the immune system.

    We are thinking of making an App for tablets out of this video. Would you like that? Did you think the visual system we developed worked? Feedback is much appreciated!

    You can get the MUSIC of the video here:

    Videos, explaining things. Like evolution, time, space, global energy or our existence in this strange universe.
    We are a team of designers, journalists and musicians who want to make science look beautiful. Because it is beautiful.

    Visit us on our Website, Twitter, Facebook, Patreon or Behance to say hi!


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    Tanya Smirnova
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    Patrick Eyrich
    Alex Kaplan
    Chris Dudley
    Deanie Adams
    Caroline Andrewes
    Dean Herbert
    Rory Bennett
    Adam Primaeros
    Rasmus Lind
    Daniel O.C.L.
    Dylan Hoffer
    Maxl Heitsch
    Eliud Vasquez
    Neve Laughery
    Ghitea Andrei Paul
    Alexander Law McCormack Heavens
    Eduardo Barbosa
    Sara Shah
    Dario Pagnia
    Chris Doughty
    Evan Low
    Stephen Morse
    Bünyamin Tetik
    Romano Casellini
    dante harper
    Justin T.
    Greeny Liu
    Siddharth Bajaj
    Valerie Brunet
    Peter Wagner
    Efe Melih Polat
    Maximilian Ritter
    Charles Kuang
    Balazs-Hegedus Jozsef
    Petr Pilař
    Finn Edwards
    Thomas Lee
    Daniel Fuchs
    Pascal B.
    Seona Tea
    Pol Lutgen
    Roman Zolotorevich
    Jonathan Velazquez Gore
    Jeff Church Churchill
    Randy Knapp
    Brandon Liu
    Peter Žnuderl
    Swarochisha Kandregula
    Javier de la Garza
    Jan Lukas Lehmann

    Why you are still alive - The immune system explained

    Help us caption & translate this video!

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    Exploring the Heart - The Circulatory System!


    Find out how the heart works, and how blood flows through your body!
    Learn more about your body here:

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    Defining Gravity: Crash Course Kids #4.1


    So, if gravity pulls everything down, then why don't things on the bottom of the Earth get pulled down into space? In this episode of Crash Course Kids, Sabrina talks about gravity and explains that when we talk about gravity pulling things down, what we really mean is gravity is pulling things TOWARD the Earth. Really, it's all about attraction.

    This first series is based on 5th grade science. We're super excited and hope you enjoy Crash Course Kids!

    ///Standards Used in This Video///
    5-PS2-1. Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down. [Clarification Statement: “Down” is a local description of the direction that points toward the center of the spherical Earth.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include mathematical representation of gravitational force.]

    Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet?
    Crash Course Main Channel:
    Facebook -
    Twitter -
    Tumblr -


    Executive Producers: John & Hank Green
    Producer & Editor: Nicholas Jenkins
    Cinematographer & Director: Michael Aranda
    Host: Sabrina Cruz
    Script Supervisor: Mickie Halpern
    Writer: Kay Boatner
    Consultant: Shelby Alinsky
    Script Editor: Blake de Pastino

    Thought Cafe Team:
    Stephanie Bailis
    Cody Brown
    Suzanna Brusikiewicz
    Jonathan Corbiere
    Nick Counter
    Kelsey Heinrichs
    Jack Kenedy
    Corey MacDonald
    Tyler Sammy
    Nikkie Stinchcombe
    James Tuer
    Adam Winnik

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    The difference between neutral and ground on the electric panel


    This one gives a detailed description of how the ground and neutral are differentiated. This video is part of the heating and cooling series of training videos made to accompany my websites: and to pass on what I have learned in many years of service and repair. If you have suggestions or comments they are welcome.
    If you are a homeowner looking to repair your own appliance, understand that the voltages can be lethal, the fuels are highly flammable and high pressures are used. Know your limits.

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    Why Are There Dangerous Ingredients In Vaccines?


    Save $75 off a Leesa mattress by going to and using the code EARTH75 -

    Support us on Patreon!

    ... like these fantastic Patreon patrons. Thanks!
    - ThePoniesTurnabout
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    Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some key words/phrases to get your googling started:
    -adjuvant: substance added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response and increase the vaccine's efficacy
    -attenuation: altering a pathogen to make it less virulent (or even harmless)
    -acquired immunity: components of the immune system that are developed via exposure to pathogens or other sources of infection


    MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth’s environment – in just a few minutes!
    Subscribe on YouTube to see our new videos:

    Created by Henry Reich
    With the MinuteEarth team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder:

    And follow us on Vessel:
    And here we are on iTunes:
    Also, say hello on:


    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2008). Toxicological profile for Aluminum. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.

    Center for Disease Control (1993). Understanding how vaccines work.

    Keith, L.S., Jones, D.E., Chou, C.H. (2002). Aluminum toxicokinetics regarding infant diet and vaccinations. Vaccine 20(Sppl. 3):513-7.

    Mitkus, R.J., King, D.B., Hess M,A., Forshee, R.A., Walderhaug, M.O. (2011). Updated aluminum pharmacokinetics following infant exposures through diet and vaccination. Vaccine 29(51):9538-9543.

    Petrovsky, N., Aguilar J.C. (2004). Vaccine adjuvants: current state and future trends. Immunology and Cell Biology 82:482–496.

    Sullivan, J.B. and Krieger, G.R., (Eds.) (2001). Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures. 2nd Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

    Thaysen-Andersen, M., Jorgensen, S.B., Wilhelmsen, E.S. et al. (2007). Investigation of the detoxification mechanism of formaldehyde-treated tetanus toxin. Vaccine 25:2213-2227.

    Unicef (1996). The Progress of Nations: Health. Vaccines bring 7 diseases under control.

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    What Is The Earth Worth?


    my twitter:
    my instagram:

    Music from:


    Vsauce: Who Owns the Moon?:

    Vsauce: How many Photos Have Been Taken?:

    Earth, Texas:

    Earth’s moons:

    Solar System speed around Milky Way:

    Greg Laughlin equation:

    History Channel Special:

    Human elements shirt:

    Element values:

    ShadyPotat0 calculation:


    Great video showing 34 years of asteroid discovery:

    433 Eros:

    Kepler search for exoplanets:

    planets in Milky Way:

    scanning the Milky Way:

    Nat Geo list of reasons Earth might be useful to other life forms:

    Beautiful things animals make:

    Animals and ownership:

    Articles on Finders-Keepers, etc.

    Monkey Seflies:

    non-human animal created works on wikimedia:

    Dog artist Tillamook Cheddar:

    LEGO shell Hermit Crab:

    Custom built see-through hermit crab shells:

    sneeze movie by Edison:

    Google Earth global timelapse:

    Seflie from space:

    space launch seen from plane:

    selling the Brooklyn Bridge (without actually owning it):

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    AMAZING Video on How the Earth & Sun Work Together + How the Power of the Sun Affects the Earth


    Check out this cool video on how the power of the Sun affects the Earth and how the Earth and the Sun work together/interact to protect the Earth & create the kind of habitable environment on Earth that we currently have.

    The Sun's powerful solar wind creates a the heliosphere which helps shield the Solar System from harmful cosmic rays. However, the power of the Sun itself greatly impacts the Earth, and the unique makeup of the Earth with its strong magnetic field helps to shield the Earth from some of the harmful effects of the Sun.

    John D. Villarreal, the Super Genius, reports and comments on this science subject.


    **Video Credit**

    Note: The outside video used in my video is courtesy NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

    The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center video I used is NOT copyrighted:

    video credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    Please also see here:
    and here:

    Note: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center DO NOT in any way endorse me, my video, my channel or anything else I am involved in, and had NOTHING to do with my video, nor am I affiliated with them in ANY WAY.

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    Universe Documentary 2015 How The Universe Works Solar Systems & Moons


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    Earth System 2. Vapour in the Atmosphere


    How the Earth works
    Earth System 0. Earth from Space (Intro)
    Earth System 1. Hurricanes
    Earth System 2. Vapour in the Atmosphere
    Earth System 3. Antarctica: the Polar Jet & the Antarctic Brine
    Earth System 4. The Molten Rock
    Earth System 5. Phytoplankton: the Sahara & the Amazon
    Earth System 6. Wild Fires
    Earth System 7. The power of the Sun
    Earth System 8. The Human Race

    Satellites enable us to provide consistent, long-term observations, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Monitoring the Earth from space helps us understand how the Earth works and affects much of our daily lives. Monitoring conditions in space and solar flares from the sun help us understand how conditions in space affect the Earth.

    Video put together for the MSc in Environmental Technology at Imperial College London

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    Earth System 7. The power of the Sun


    How the Earth works
    Earth System 0. Earth from Space (Intro)
    Earth System 1. Hurricanes
    Earth System 2. Vapour in the Atmosphere
    Earth System 3. Antarctica: the Polar Jet & the Antarctic Brine
    Earth System 4. The Molten Rock
    Earth System 5. Phytoplankton: the Sahara & the Amazon
    Earth System 6. Wild Fires
    Earth System 7. The power of the Sun
    Earth System 8. The Human Race

    Satellites enable us to provide consistent, long-term observations, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Monitoring the Earth from space helps us understand how the Earth works and affects much of our daily lives. Monitoring conditions in space and solar flares from the sun help us understand how conditions in space affect the Earth.

    Video put together for the MSc in Environmental Technology at Imperial College London

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    Earth System Satellite Information: Now and Future


    I filmed this hyperwall presentation at the US Booth at COP21 in Paris. It is a great overview of existing instruments on monitoring satellites, as well as future plans for launches.

    Please consider supporting my work on educating the public to the gave dangers we face from abrupt climate change. There is a Please Donate button on the far right of the main task bar at my website

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    11. How does the curent economic system work and why is it unsustainable? Earths Limits


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    Complexity Science: 4 Systems Theory


    Brief overview to the area of Systems theory.
    For full courses, transcriptions and downloads please see:


    Systems theory is a set of theoretical concepts used to describe a wide variety of thing in terms of a model called a system. To give it context lets talk a bit about it's origins.

    Of cause people have been coming up with abstract theories about how the world work for a long time. Some ancient Greeks thought everything was made of earth, water, fire and air, whilst others came to the conclusion that it was the expression of perfect geometric forms.

    Over the years our theoretical systems have grown into large and sophisticated bodies of knowledge such as philosophy, mathematics and the many areas of theoretical science, although these theoretical frameworks are often limited to relatively specific area of interest.

    During the 20th century Systems theory emerged as a new theory that draws upon many core concepts within these pre-existing methods to develop a more abstract framework that is design to be universally applicable to all domains.

    In order to achieve such a general relevance, system theory starts with the abstract concept of a system and then applies this to modeling various different phenomena from biological to social and technical systems.

    The model of a system can be loosely defined as a set of parts often called elements that form a whole, which is referred to as the system. A system exists within an environment and has a boundary that differentiated the systems exterior from its interior.

    An example of this might be a country, interior to which are all the people, institution and other elements that constitutes the nation as an entire system. Whilst exterior to its boundary is the international political environment.

    A system can be either open or isolated, isolated systems do not interact with their environment, but most systems are open meaning there is an exchange of energy and resources between the system and its environment.

    The passing of energy or resources from the exterior of the systems boundary to the interior is termed an input whilst the reverse is termed an output.

    Systems develop or function through the input of energy or resources from their environment, they process this energy by transforming it to create an output, if this output is of some value to its environment it can be termed energy.

    If on the other hand it is of negative value it may be termed entropy, a scientific term for lack of order, disarrangement or in more familiar terms we might call it waste.

    An early use of this type of model was during the development of the steam-engine where scientist and engineers were thinking about the amount of fuel inputted to the engine relative to the power out put and heat energy wasted. By using this model they could create a quantifiable ration between them that we would now term the efficiency of the system.

    Of cause this same reasoning can be applied to a wide variety of phenomena from the processing of energy within a plant cell to the efficiency of a business organization.

    We can model systems on various scales, thus elements can form part of systems that themselves form part of larger systems and so on, this is termed nesting or encapsulation and helps us to analyst a system on various levels whilst hiding away the underlining complexity.

    Systems theory explores many other areas such as Emergence that raises key question about the relationship between the parts within a system and the hole, that is how elements can function together or self organize to create some new and emergent structure as an entirety...

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    What If The Earth Stopped Spinning?


    What if the Earth stopped spinning? LEARN MORE BELOW!
    follow Michael Stevens:

    Courtly Love Mirage:

    music by:

    Faster Earth-spin physics:

    If Earth stopped spinning:

    human dimensions:

    If Earth stopped spinning VIDEOS:

    Why does Earth rotate?

    centripetal vs centrifugal:


    atomic clocks:


    Earth slowing down and unstable:

    Earth footage:

    Earth and ocean animation by
    People flailing animation by Eric Langley

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    GPS Fail - Proof that GPS does not work over the open ocean.


    Also, if you go to this site you can see that ONLY the cruise ships that are NEAR the land are on this map.

    On this site: It PLAINLY STATES:
    The live cruise ship tracker tracks all vessels at sea REPORTING OR IN RANGE OF GPS.

    So if they are NOT reporting and they are NOT IN RANGE, they do not show up,

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    The Water Cycle


    This video uses animation, graphics, and video clips to illustrate and explain each of the flow and storage processes in the Hydrologic Cycle, more commonly known as the Water Cycle: precipitation, interception, runoff, infiltration, percolation, groundwater discharge, evaporation, transpiration, evapotranspiration, and condensation.

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    Inside the living body


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    Bill Nye The Science Guy on Wind


    Heat from the Sun and the spin of the Earth keep our air windy. Dig a lovely plexiglas demonstration chamber... of science. You can see the air get pushed around so does Bill.

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    Dr. Steven Greer : They Will Stage an Alien Attack on Earth


    Please support Dr. Greer's great work: Also: For more information on ET contact:

    This is an afternoon workshop training intensive with Dr. Steven Greer on how to make Contact using the CE-5 protocols and what the implications are for global Disclosure when thousands of people are making Contact.

    Dr. Greer shares the amazing collection of CE-5 ET Contact photos and videos and describe what REALLY happens as Contact is occurring. He describes the techniques of remote viewing and Contact vectoring that are used in the CE-5 Initiative and teaches the mediation technique and approach so you can start your own CE-5 Contact Team! And he leads the group in a guided meditation.

    There is a thorough discussion of Trans-Dimensional technologies, ET Technologies and what type of phenomena occurs when ETs are coming into our dimension on Earth from other star systems.

    This workshop will transform your understanding of UFOS, ETs and empower you to become an Ambassador from humanity to these visitors from the Stars!

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    The Lie We Live


    Exposing the truth about our world. My name is Spencer Cathcart and this is a video I wrote & created called The Lie We Live. If you'd like to see more videos please subscribe:

    NOTE: Do not download & reupload my video. You're encouraged to share the original Youtube link but there's no reason to download it and reupload it and doing so makes it very difficult for me to build an audience for future videos. Also my video has never been censored and any website claiming so is fabricating the story for their own publicity. Only reuploads are removed.

    SUBTITLES: Watch with subtitles in over 40 languages through Settings in the lower right corner of the video.

    My video The Lie We Live is also available to watch on my Facebook page (

    Songs used:
    1) Iron Dragon - Alliance
    2) Dynasty - Initiative - CMX
    3) Immediate Music - Overcome Anything
    4) Fringe Authority - CMX
    5) Above All - Petteri Sainio
    6) Confidential Music - Paradise Lost
    7) Heart of the Rebellion - CMX

    I have also used some footage from the films Baraka & Blue Planet.


    The Lie We Live © 2015 Spencer Cathcart

    If you would to create subtitles for another language please email me the translation to rather than upload another video. Subtitles currently available in over 40 languages, including Russian, Chinese (Taiwan, Hong Kong), Spanish, Japanese, Indonesian, Arabic, Dutch, Vietnamese, French, German, Portuguese, Italian,Turkish, Polish, Greek, Albanian, Bulgarian, Swedish, Croatian, Hebrew, Lithuanian, Czech, Danish, Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian, Persian/Farsi, Romanian, Serbian, Bosnian, Slovak, Slovenian & more.

    Below are titles that have been used for my video around the world:

    - Le mensonge dans lequel nous vivons | Le mensonge que nous vivons.
    - La Mentira En Que Vivimos
    - Die Lüge die wir leben (De Leugen Die Wij Leven)
    - Лъжата, в която живеем! Лагите Во Кои Живееме
    - A mentira que vivemos (Nós vivemos uma mentira)
    - 我们身处的谎言世界 发人深省的视频 已被译为28国语言!
    - 震撼全球的短片,改变千万人的价值观!
    - 「私達が生きるウソ」
    - Kłamstwo w którym żyjemy
    - La Menzogna In Cui Viviamo (La Bugia In Cui Viviamo)
    - Zivot, ktery zijeme Video, které vám změní život
    - Hazugságban élt életünk
    - Minciuna în Care Trăim
    - השקר בו אנו חיים (ПОСЛАНИЕ ЧЕЛОВЕЧЕСТВУ)
    - Es ist Zeit etwas zu ändern!
    - Laži koje živimo Lažni život kojeg živimo
    - La vidéo qu'il faut absolument regarder vivons
    - De Leugen Waarin We Leven | Nederlandse ondertiteling
    - We zijn allemaal slaven van het systeem
    - Klamstvo, v ktorom žijeme
    - Lež, ve které lidstvo žije.
    - الكذبة التي نعيشها
    - دروغ زندگی میکنیم!
    - Mira El Vídeo Que Puede Revolucionar El Mundo
    - LEŽ ve které žijeme!
    - Jeder einmal anschauen und teilen sehr wichtig!
    - We Live In A Lie
    - Cette video de 8 minutes risque de changer votre vie
    - The One Video That Can Change The World
    - Yaşadığımız Yalan Vale mida me elame
    - A hazugság, amiben élünk Lögnen vi lever
    - Melas, kurį gyvename Klamstvo, v ktorom žijeme
    - Το ψέμα στο οποίο ζούμε (Το ψεμα που ζουμε )

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    The Beginning of Everything -- The Big Bang


    How did everything get started?

    Has the universe a beginning or was it here since forever? Well, evidence suggests that there was indeed a starting point to this universe we are part of right now. But how can this be? How can something come from nothing? And what about time? We don't have all the answers yet so let's talk about what we know.

    Also, we try to make this one not depressing. Tell us if we succeeded.

    BY THE WAY. We have a website now. We'll try to blog from time to time, show you guys how we make the videos and give more insight to our process. Also we sell stuff. We really don't know where this whole kurzgesagt stuff leads us. But we are really thankful for all the attention and positive feedback and yeah, maybe we can make this our jobs -- it would be pretty nice and we could do more content each month. But we'll see. For now, thank you very much everybody for making this little adventure possible.

    If you like the MUSIC of the video, you can get it here:
    Thomas did an aweful good job again. :)

    Next Video: April. (as soon as we can but we kind of have to make a living and visit college) Topic: Nuclear Energy (probably, if we finish the research in time -- if not something else)

    Short videos, explaining things. For example Evolution, the Universe, Time, the Stock Exchange or controversial topics like Fracking. Because we love science.

    We're a bunch of Information designers from munich, visit us on our website, twitter, facebook or behance to say hi!

    The Beginning of Everything -- The Big Bang

    Help us caption & translate this video!

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    Environmental Science


    001 - Environmental Science

    In this video Paul Andersen outlines the AP Environmental Science course. He explains how environmental science studies the interaction between earth and human systems. A planetary boundary model is used to explain the importance of sustainability. The importance of science practices and knowledge of the APES format is also included.

    Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos:

    Music Attribution

    Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav
    Artist: CosmicD
    Link to sound:
    Creative Commons Atribution License

    Title: String Theory
    Artist: Herman Jolly

    All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:
    “Aldo Leopold Trip to the Rio Gavilan.” Flickr - Photo Sharing!. Accessed August 19, 2015.
    Cline, Mike. East Gallatin River Near Belgrade, Montana October 2007, October 2007. Own work.
    “Easter Island.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, August 4, 2015.
    “File:DDT Powder.jpg.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, April 28, 2015.
    “File:Deepwater Horizon.jpg.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, June 19, 2013.
    “File:Silent Spring Book-of-the-Month-Club edition.JPG.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, October 6, 2012.
    Filutowska, Zuzanna K. Polski: Laboratorium Pracowni Technik Biologii Molekularnej Na Wydziale Biologii Uniwersytetu Adama Mickiewicza W Poznaniu, March 6, 2012. Own work.
    “Gifford Pinchot.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, August 17, 2015.
    Janwikifoto. Johan Rockström, at the Nobel Laurate Globalsymposium 2011, at Vetenskapsakademien in Stockholm, Discussing Climate Change, May 17, 2011.
    “John Muir.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, August 10, 2015.
    Mueller, Felix. English: Planetary Boundaries according to the Paper by Rockström et Al. Published in Nature 2009. The Red Areas Represent the Estimated Current State with the Inner Green Circle Being the Estimated Boundaries., November 8, 2014. Own work.
    pl.wikipedia, Original uploader was Marcin Otorowski at. English: So Called “New Matura” from Polish Language in the 1st Liceum Ogólnokształcące in Szczecin, Poland, May 13, 2005. Transferred from pl.wikipedia, genuine source:[1] Polski: jestem autorem strony i mam prawo do zdjęć. Zdjęcie wykonał: Oskar Błaszkowski.
    Sevice, Rex Gary Schmidt/U S. Fish and Wildlife. English: Robert W. Hines and Rachel Carson on the Atlantic Coast., [object HTMLTableCellElement]. See Category:Images from the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
    “The Blue Marble.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, May 12, 2015.
    “TI-83 Series.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, April 5, 2015.
    Underwood, Underwood &. U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt (left) and Nature Preservationist John Muir, Founder of the Sierra Club, on Glacier Point in Yosemite National Park. In the Background: Upper and Lower Yosemite Falls., Copyright 1906.
    Unknown. English: Platform Supply Vessels Battle the Blazing Remnants of the off Shore Oil Rig Deepwater Horizon.

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    How do Airplanes fly ?


    Help us to make future videos for you. Make LE's efforts sustainable. Please support us at !

    This video demonstrates the airplane operation in a logical manner with help of animation.

    Please check the following video and webpage to have a concept check on 'Bernoulli's component of Lift'

    Starting from Wright Brother's flight, working of a modern aircraft is illustrated here. Cockpit controls, working of jet engine and Flight navigation is also well explained here. Airplane Yawing, Rolling and Descent are explained here.

    Watch the following video to get more details about working of the jet engines

    Like us on Facebook :

    Voice-over artist :

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    Gravity Visualized


    Help Keep PTSOS Going, Click Here:
    Dan Burns explains his space-time warping demo at a PTSOS workshop at Los Gatos High School, on March 10, 2012. Thanks to Shannon Range from the Gravity Probe B program for creating the original demonstration which he shared with Dan in 2004.
    Information on how to make your own Spacetime Simulator can be found here:

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