Earth science Lectures

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    Earth System Science 1: Intro to ESS. Lecture 1. Introduction and the Scientific Method


    UCI ESS 1: Introduction to Earth System Science (Fall 2013)
    Lec 01. Introduction to Earth System Science -- Introduction and the Scientific Method --
    View the complete course:

    Instructor: Julie Ferguson, Ph.D.

    License: Creative Commons CC-BY-SA
    Terms of Use:
    More courses at

    Description: Earth System Science covers the following topics: the origin and evolution of the Earth, atmosphere, oceans, perspective of biogeochemical cycles, energy use, and human impacts on the Earth system.

    Recorded on September 27, 2013

    Required attribution: Ferguson, Julie. Introduction to Earth System Science 1 (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 United States License. (

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    Brian Cox Lecture - GCSE Science brought down to Earth


    The hugely popular scientist held his second 'Star Lecture' at The University of Manchester on Wednesday 8 June. Brian is an academic in the School of Physics and Astronomy,

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    Geology 1


    Introductory lecture to Physical Geology.

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    2016 Holiday Lectures on Science


    Two leading ecologists describe the complex interactions between species and their environment in aquatic ecosystems. Using field experiments, the researchers illustrate how interactions among organisms such as fish, crab, insects, snails, and algae determine the vitality of rivers and coastal ecosystems and how these factors are affected by human activities.

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    Unit 1: Introduction to Marine Science


    Introduction to Marine Science & The Scientific Method

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    How to crack CSIR NET exam analysis


    These CSIR NET life science lectures will explain how to qualify CSIR NET JRF/LS with tips and tricks discussed for group A, B and C of NET exam paper.
    For more information, log on to-

    Download the study materials here-

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    Carl Sagan: Christmas Lectures 1 - The Earth as a Planet


    1977 Carl Sagan Christmas lectures 1, the earth as a planet.

    In his first Christmas Lecture, American astronomer and cosmologist Carl Sagan explores planet Earth and the place, scale and geometry of the pale blue dot in the Solar System.

    Sagan provides a unique insight into the history of our knowledge of the third planet from the Sun, formed 4.5 billion years ago.

    Using images and models of the planets in our Solar System, Sagan reveals how the heliocentric model of our universe, in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun, came to replace the earlier Aristotelian idea that our planet was at the centre and everything orbited around it.

    As the complexity of observational tools has developed from simple telescopes to complex spacecraft, so too has our understanding of the world we inhabit. Looking back on the evolution in space science in the years since Sagan's lectures we have made huge advances in our understanding of our planet's environment, climate, weather, geology and biology -- as well as our relative place in the universe.

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    Human Life on Mars


    Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury. Named after the Roman god of war, it is often described as the Red Planet because the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the volcanoes, valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the second highest known mountain within the Solar System (the tallest on a planet), and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant impact feature. Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Mars trojan.

    Until the first successful Mars flyby in 1965 by Mariner 4, many speculated about the presence of liquid water on the planet's surface. This was based on observed periodic variations in light and dark patches, particularly in the polar latitudes, which appeared to be seas and continents; long, dark striations were interpreted by some as irrigation channels for liquid water. These straight line features were later explained as optical illusions, though geological evidence gathered by unmanned missions suggests that Mars once had large-scale water coverage on its surface at some earlier stage of its life. In 2005, radar data revealed the presence of large quantities of water ice at the poles at mid-latitudes. The Mars rover Spirit sampled chemical compounds containing water molecules in March 2007. The Phoenix lander directly sampled water ice in shallow Martian soil on July 31, 2008]

    Mars is host to seven functioning spacecraft: five in orbit – the Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MAVEN and Mars Orbiter Mission – and two on the surface – Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity and the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity. Defunct spacecraft on the surface include MER-A Spirit and several other inert landers and rovers such as the Phoenix lander, which completed its mission in 2008. Observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have revealed possible flowing water during the warmest months on Mars. In 2013, NASA's Curiosity rover discovered that Mars' soil contains between 1.5% and 3% water by mass (about two pints of water per cubic foot or 33 liters per cubic meter, albeit attached to other compounds and thus not freely accessible).

    Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring. Its apparent magnitude reaches −3.0, which is surpassed only by Jupiter, Venus, the Moon, and the Sun. Optical ground-based telescopes are typically limited to resolving features about 300 km (186 miles) across when Earth and Mars are closest because of Earth's atmosphere.

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    Earth and Planetary Science C20 - Lecture 1


    Earthquakes in Your Backyard

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    Jack Szostak Part 1: The Origin of Cellular Life on Earth


    Szostak begins his lecture with examples of the extreme environments in which life exists on Earth. He postulates that given the large number of earth-like planets orbiting sun-like stars, and the ability of microbial life to exist in a wide range of environments, it is probable that an environment that could support life exists somewhere in our galaxy. However, whether or not life does exist elsewhere, depends on the answer to the question of how difficult it is for life to arise from the chemistry of the early planets. Szostak proceeds to demonstrate that by starting with simple molecules and conditions found on the early earth, it may in fact be possible to generate a primitive, self-replicating protocell.

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    How to crack CSIR NET qualify Group A


    These CSIR NET life science lectures will explain how to qualify CSIR NET JRF/LS with tips and tricks discussed for group A, B and C of NET exam paper.
    For more information, log on to-

    Download the study materials here-

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    Engineering Geology And Geotechnics - Lecture 1


    CLASS: GeoEng 341
    PROFESSOR: Dr. David Rogers
    DESCRIPTION OF COURSE: Study of procedures and techniques used to evaluate geologic factors for site selection and the design of engineered structures. Prerequisite: Ge Eng 275.

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    Basic Soil Science


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    PIK: Climate Science Lecture - The Basics of Global Warming


    Follow ClimateState

    Prof. Stefan Rahmstorf explains the basics of Climate Science. Basic data sets and findings about Global Warming, including some comments on historic land marks of the Science.

    Watch part two Impacts of Climate Change

    These lectures form part of a broader lecture course called World in Transition. It includes 11 themes, presented by the members of the German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU). This is a body of experts appointed by the German government and advising it on global change issues.

    Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

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    DIVE Earth Science Lecture 1-3B


    This is what the DIVE Earth Science lectures look like. There are 2 lectures each week, an A and B lecture. PLEASE NOTE: The Flash controls do not work on the YouTube version. DIVE Earth Science lectures average about 20 minutes each.

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    Astronomy - Ch. 9: Earth as a Planet Earths Atmosphere: 2***


    Visit for more math and science lectures!

    In this video I will discuss Earth's troposphere, stratosphere, ozone layer, mesosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere and its associated temperatures.

    Next video in this series can be seen at:

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    J.R.R. Tolkiens Saga of Middle Earth - Philosophy and Speculative Fiction


    This is the second session in a new series of monthly lectures and discussions, spanning the year 2016 and hosted by the Brookfield Public Library. This year the series focuses on philosophical themes in the works and world of selected classic and contemporary fantasy and science fiction authors.

    We continue the series by focusing in this session on J.R.R. Tolkien's works, in particular those concerned with his world of Arda and specifically Middle Earth -- the Lord of the Rings trilogy, the Hobbit, and the Simarillion.

    8:00 - biographical discussion of Tolkien's life and career

    19:50 - Tolkien as a world-builder

    36:23 - a metaphysics of creation in Tolkien's works

    48:26 - good and evil in Tolkien's works

    56:36 - the one Ring

    1:05:31 - wrapup, other themes, and Q&A

    Upcoming lectures in the series will focus on the works and worlds of Frank Herbert, Roger Zelazny, Ursula K. Leguin, Michael Moorcock, Phillip K. Dick, Mervyn Peake, and George R.R. Martin.

    Previous lectures - on J.R.R. Tolkien, A.E. Van Vogt, and C.S. Lewis have been recorded and are available in this playlist:

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    London Lecture: Earths Climate Evolution


    This London Lecture was delivered by Dr Colin Summerhayes of the University of Cambridge on 15 April 2015

    Developments in different branches of science, including geology, have provided us with the basis for a coherent theory of climate change. The geologists of the 19th century were puzzled by the 'Great Cooling' that characterized the Tertiary Era. They were also puzzled by erratic blocks. Buckland thought them dumped by Noah's flood, Lyell thought them dumped by icebergs, Agassiz preferred ice sheets, and won the day. In the 1860s Tyndall found that CO2 absorbed and re-emitted heat, so could explain past climate change. In the 1890s Arrhenius calculated how changes in CO2 might explain glacials and interglacials. By 1899 T.C. Chamberlin converted that into a geological theory of global climate.

    We now know that a decline in CO2 caused the 'Great Cooling'. Its record differs from place to place because the continents have moved. Lyell realised in 1830 that the motions of continents through climate zones could explain past climate change, an idea perfected by Wegener in the 1920s, underpinned by palaeomagnetic data in the 1950s, and reinforced by plate tectonic theory in the 1960s.

    Attempts to attribute Ice Age variability to celestial mechanics began in 1830, advanced with Croll in the 1860s, Milankovitch in the 1920s, and Andre Berger in the 1970s. Isotope geochemists began unravelling the secrets of climate change in the 1950s, expanding their work through access to deep ocean cores from 1968 on, and to ice cores from the 1980s. Linking isotopic changes in sediments to celestial mechanics was as big a breakthrough as plate tectonics. We can now use isotopes to investigate the centennial variability of the Sun.

    We have come a long way from the notion that erratic blocks of rock on British hills were deposited by Noah's flood. The past 20 years have seen dramatic advances in our knowledge of the variability of past climate, and its causes, which underpins understanding what our climate is doing now and may do in the future (following Hutton's dictum that the past and the present are the keys to what happens next). These advances, many of them only reported in scientific journals, deserve to be more widely known. They show that our climate operates within narrow natural envelopes. We should still be in the Little Ice Age envelope, but our emissions have moved our climate into new territory. Man has become a geological agent.

    Find out more at

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    How Did Earth Get Its Water? - University of Michigan Lecture


    In this lecture, University of Michigan Professor Ted Bergin discusses the origin of planets from molecular clouds. He talks about water and it's specific qualities which makes it an essential element in everything.

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    Environmental Science


    001 - Environmental Science

    In this video Paul Andersen outlines the AP Environmental Science course. He explains how environmental science studies the interaction between earth and human systems. A planetary boundary model is used to explain the importance of sustainability. The importance of science practices and knowledge of the APES format is also included.

    Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos:

    Music Attribution

    Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav
    Artist: CosmicD
    Link to sound:
    Creative Commons Atribution License

    Title: String Theory
    Artist: Herman Jolly

    All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:
    “Aldo Leopold Trip to the Rio Gavilan.” Flickr - Photo Sharing!. Accessed August 19, 2015.
    Cline, Mike. East Gallatin River Near Belgrade, Montana October 2007, October 2007. Own work.
    “Easter Island.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, August 4, 2015.
    “File:DDT Powder.jpg.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, April 28, 2015.
    “File:Deepwater Horizon.jpg.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, June 19, 2013.
    “File:Silent Spring Book-of-the-Month-Club edition.JPG.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, October 6, 2012.
    Filutowska, Zuzanna K. Polski: Laboratorium Pracowni Technik Biologii Molekularnej Na Wydziale Biologii Uniwersytetu Adama Mickiewicza W Poznaniu, March 6, 2012. Own work.
    “Gifford Pinchot.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, August 17, 2015.
    Janwikifoto. Johan Rockström, at the Nobel Laurate Globalsymposium 2011, at Vetenskapsakademien in Stockholm, Discussing Climate Change, May 17, 2011.
    “John Muir.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, August 10, 2015.
    Mueller, Felix. English: Planetary Boundaries according to the Paper by Rockström et Al. Published in Nature 2009. The Red Areas Represent the Estimated Current State with the Inner Green Circle Being the Estimated Boundaries., November 8, 2014. Own work.
    pl.wikipedia, Original uploader was Marcin Otorowski at. English: So Called “New Matura” from Polish Language in the 1st Liceum Ogólnokształcące in Szczecin, Poland, May 13, 2005. Transferred from pl.wikipedia, genuine source:[1] Polski: jestem autorem strony i mam prawo do zdjęć. Zdjęcie wykonał: Oskar Błaszkowski.
    Sevice, Rex Gary Schmidt/U S. Fish and Wildlife. English: Robert W. Hines and Rachel Carson on the Atlantic Coast., [object HTMLTableCellElement]. See Category:Images from the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
    “The Blue Marble.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, May 12, 2015.
    “TI-83 Series.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, April 5, 2015.
    Underwood, Underwood &. U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt (left) and Nature Preservationist John Muir, Founder of the Sierra Club, on Glacier Point in Yosemite National Park. In the Background: Upper and Lower Yosemite Falls., Copyright 1906.
    Unknown. English: Platform Supply Vessels Battle the Blazing Remnants of the off Shore Oil Rig Deepwater Horizon.

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    The Sun, our Nearest Star - Professor Carolin Crawford


    Without our Sun, there would be no heat, no light and no life on Earth. An eleven-year cycle of magnetic activity modulates its appearance, and the occurrence of eruptive events such as flares and coronal mass ejections. I shall discuss how these, in turn, affect the Earth – and how the Sun currently does not seem to be behaving as expected. The transcript and downloadable versions of the lecture are available from the Gresham College Website: Gresham College has been giving free public lectures since 1597. This tradition continues today with all of our five or so public lectures a week being made available for free download from our website. There are currently over 1,700 lectures free to access or download from the website. Website: Twitter: Facebook:

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    Our Future Off Earth - Professor Christopher Impey


    What are the latest developments in Space investigation? What might the future hold? ...When might we start living on Mars?

    The Space Age is half a century old. Its early successes were driven by a fierce superpower rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States, which tended to obscure the fact that exploration and risk-tasking is built into human DNA. Decades after we last set foot on the moon, space activity is finally taking off. A vibrant private sector, led by SpaceX and Virgin Galactic, plans to launch supplies cheaply into earth orbit, and giving people the chance of a sub-orbital joyride. Fighting gravity will always be difficult but new materials are being developed and engineers are rethinking rockets and developing new propulsion technologies.

    Permanent bases on the Moon and Mars are now within reach, and a new Space Race is brewing. We can now envisage our future off-Earth.

    The transcript and downloadable versions of the lecture are available from the Gresham College website:

    Gresham College has been giving free public lectures since 1597. This tradition continues today with all of our five or so public lectures a week being made available for free download from our website. There are currently over 1,900 lectures free to access or download from the website.


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    Holiday Lectures on Science: Bacterias Deadly Design


    Lecture by C. Erec Stebbins, Associate Professor, The Rockefeller University

    When it comes to the evolution of life on earth, those who have been here longest have seniority. And after four billion years, bacteria reign supreme. Unfortunately for us, some of them have been using that time to scheme at invading our bodies and outsmarting our cells. Bacteria make up the largest part of the biosphere, outnumbering plants and animals by trillions. They even outnumber the cells in your own body. They have become adept at forming relationships with animals, often cooperative business relationships that help both organisms.

    But while most bacteria are good for the planet — they play a major role in sustaining and shaping life on Earth — some are not so nice. Some inject toxins into your body and hijack your cells in order to reproduce. And thanks to the beauty of evolution, they've developed a sophisticated, sinister way to do that: with a tiny protein syringe capable of penetrating your cells' protective membranes. Earth's early nanotechnology.

    This virulence device, protruding from bacteria such as Salmonella, E. coli and Yersinia pestis, is capable of injecting proteins into the hosts' cells that can take over their machinery and manipulate them like a puppet. Some proteins tell the cells to invite more bacteria in, forcing the cells to be an unwitting aide to their own demise. Others take over the cell cycle and command the cell to self-destruct. The nano-syringe, along with the proteins that pass through it, is one of the primary ways by which bacteria communicate with and control their environment.

    Rockefeller University's C. Erec Stebbins studies the methods by which bacteria target and infect their hosts. In his Laboratory of Structural Microbiology, Dr. Stebbins and his lab members use techniques from biochemistry, microbial cell biology and x-ray crystallography to uncover the molecular architecture that enables bacteria to spread disease.

    Having the blueprints for these nanostructures allows scientists to understand how they work. And understanding how bacteria work helps researchers develop the antibiotics to stop them from making people sick. Join Dr. Stebbins for a presentation on the biology behind infectious bacteria — a product of evolution that is both beautiful and frightening.

    Dr. Stebbins' Bio:

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    Climate Change: Where We Are Now and Where We Are Going?


    Professor James White reviews the basic science behind the Earth’s climate system and discusses how humans are impacting it and put the current climate situation into the context of natural variability. White is director of the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research.

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    Physics - Mechanics: Gravity The Effect of Earths Rotation on Gravity


    Visit for more math and science lectures!

    In this video I will calculate the effects of Earth's rotation on gravity.

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    Art and Science Transdisciplinary Lectures | Parsons The New School for Design


    Visit THE NEW SCHOOL | for more information.

    The Vera List Center launches its fall 2010 season with a new lecture series, co-organized with the School of Art, Media, and Technology and the Fine Arts Program at Parsons

    Focused on Art and Science, the series captures the increasingly transdisciplinary nature of scientific, academic, artistic, and cultural practices and, in particular, focuses on the complex cross-disciplinary settings for art's production in contemporary life. Clustered around specific subjects such as geophysics, system theory, economics, and the physics of time, the lectures are presented in thematic pairs, one week apart. Members of The New School's acclaimed faculty alternate with external scholars, experts, and artists. All lectures are open to the public.

    Tatiana Lyubetskaya, the first lecturer, introduces the major concepts that form the basis of scientific thinking such as data, model, assumption, and proof before examining specific cases of interdisciplinary scientific investigations in the fields of geology, geochemistry, and geophysics. The common ground between these subjects is found in the principles of mathematical analysis, which allow processing and manipulating different kinds of information in order to construct theoretical models describing the behavior of complex systems. The fundamental problem of determining the chemical composition of the earth and its applications in different earth sciences serves as an example. Theoretical modeling of geological processes such as mountain building and erosion will be examined as it illuminates the ways in which a scientific problem is formulated and how possible solutions are constructed and tested. Lyubetskaya, whose background includes the sciences as well as the visual arts received her PhD in geophysics from Yale and her MFA from Parsons The New School for Design--launches this new lectures series. The second speaker, on September 7, is mathematician Jennifer Wilson.

    Hosted by the Vera List Center for Art and Politics |

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    Finding the Next Earth: The Latest Results from Kepler


    Oct. 17, 2012
    Dr. Natalie Batalha (NASA Ames Res. Ctr.)

    Dr. Batalha (Mission Scientist for the Kepler Mission, searching for exoplanets) describes the techniques used by the Kepler team to identify planets orbiting other stars and updates us on the remarkable progress they are making in the search for Earth-sized worlds. She discusses the planets already found and shares what we know so far about the thousands of candidate planets that are in the Kepler data.

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    How Common is Life in the Universe? - Professor Joseph Silk


    A review of the genesis of the universe, to consider how many galaxies might support life:

    The discovery of exo-planets and of Earth twins will be described, with a review of attempts to estimate the probability of finding life in the universe - for example how many stars do we need to survey to find suitable planets? How much time is needed to generate life?

    The transcript and downloadable versions of the lecture are available from the Gresham College website:

    Gresham College has been giving free public lectures since 1597. This tradition continues today with all of our five or so public lectures a week being made available for free download from our website. There are currently over 1,900 lectures free to access or download from the website.

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    John Suppe- Sheriff Lecture- Plate Tectonics


    John Suppe, Professor at the University of Houston, presents a talk titled The Second Half of Plate Tectonics: Finding the Last 200 MY of Subducted Lithosphere and Incorporating it into Plate Reconstruction. His co-author is Jonny Wu. This talk combines maps of deep lithosphere plates with 3D globe animations of the Pacific plates. HGS and the University of Houston jointly hosted this talk on November 7, 2016 in Houston Texas

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    McCloskey Speaker Series – New Theories on the Origin of Life with Dr. Eric Smith


    Featuring Dr. Eric Smith, professor at the Earth-Life Science Institute in Tokyo and the Santa Fe Institute. For most of the 20th century, complex biological views of evolution have been central to the way scientists think about the origin of life. But progress over the past 40 years in such fields as ocean exploration, microbiology, and planetary science has come together to suggest that life's origin may have been built on a core chemical blueprint. Dr. Smith argues that we need a new understanding of the nature of life, in which the dominant, Darwinian view of a “struggle for existence” comes second, and life at its core came about as a necessary layer of our maturing planet.

    Eric Smith began scientific work in high-energy physics, with Bachelor degrees in math and physics from Caltech, and a Ph.D. from the University of Texas in 1993. His work moved increasingly into topics in complex systems, during appointments in the University of Texas and the Los Alamos National Laboratories, culminating in eleven years spent at the Santa Fe Institute. At SFI he began parallel threads of work in non-equilibrium thermodynamics, economics and finance, and the history of human languages, and began studying the geochemistry, biochemistry, and evolution of the earliest life. He is currently a professor and Principle Investigator of the Earth-Life Science Institute in Tokyo, and external professor at SFI. His goal is to understand the origin and nature of the living state through the many windows that science provides on it: the physical, geochemical, biochemical, ecological, and evolutionary.

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    Brilliant Blunders - Mario Livio Public Lecture


    Even the greatest scientists have made some serious blunders. Brilliant Blunders concerns the evolution of life on Earth, of the Earth itself, of stars, and of the universe as a whole.

    In this talk, astrophysicist Dr. Mario Livio explores and analyzes major errors committed by such luminaries as Charles Darwin, Linus Pauling, and Albert Einstein.

    Check out future Perimeter Public Lectures:

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    How to crack the CSIR NET exam Overview


    These CSIR NET life science lectures will explain how to qualify CSIR NET JRF/LS with tips and tricks discussed for group A, B and C of NET exam paper.
    For more information, log on to-

    Download the study materials here-

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    House Science & National Labs Caucus: Neil deGrasse Tyson


    Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson kicked off the House Science & National Labs Caucus with a lecture at the Library of Congress.

    Speaker Biography: Neil deGrasse Tyson is an American astrophysicist and science communicator. He is currently the Frederick P. Rose Director of the Hayden Planetarium at the Rose Center for Earth and Space and a research associate in the department of astrophysics at the American Museum of Natural History. He has appeared on or hosted several television programs promoting science and space exploration.

    For captions, transcript, and more information, visit

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    Lecture 1 - Sustainable Development Concepts


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    Is Earth Actually Flat?


    Flat Earth gravity simulation by Yeti Dynamics:

    Kansas flatness study: (the pancakes used in the study were from IHOP):

    the flatness of other states:

    The Meaning Of It All by Richard Feynman:

    “The Pig That Wants to Be Eaten”:

    related Vsauce video, “Is Anything Real?”

    Minutphysics “TOP 10 REASONS Why We Know the Earth is Round”

    Good satirical series about how the Earth IS flat:

    What if Earth was a cube?

    MYTH of the round Earth:

    Earth is round:

    Varrazano bridge:

    Varrazano spelling controversy:

    Flat Earth Society:

    Wilbur Glen Voliva:

    Flat earth map (one theory):

    Poe’s Law:

    Science is always provisional and theories are never conclusively proven:

    Asimov on being “more wrong”:

    Occam’s Razor:

    Newton’s flaming laser sword:

    Other razors:

    relativistic length contractions:

    I really liked this one:

    Earth and cosmic ray perspective:

    wolfram contraction simulator:

    Susan Haack:

    1996 election NYT crossword:

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    Physics - Mechanics: Gravity Force Between Earth and Moon, and Earth and Sun


    Visit for more math and science lectures!

    In this video I will explain and calculate the forces between Earth and Moon, and Earth and Sun.

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    The history of our world in 18 minutes | David Christian


    Backed by stunning illustrations, David Christian narrates a complete history of the universe, from the Big Bang to the Internet, in a riveting 18 minutes. This is Big History: an enlightening, wide-angle look at complexity, life and humanity, set against our slim share of the cosmic timeline.

    TEDTalks is a daily video podcast of the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes. TED stands for Technology, Entertainment, Design, and TEDTalks cover these topics as well as science, business, development and the arts. Closed captions and translated subtitles in a variety of languages are now available on, at

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    Gravitation part 2 Class 9th Science Chapter by CBSE Lectures


    For DVD Purchase Call 7838942884 OR Click Here:
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    In our dairy life we have noticed things falling freely downwards towards earth when thrown upwards or dropped from some height.
    Fact that all bodies irrespective of their masses are accelerated towards the earth with a constant acceleration was first recognized by Galileo (1564-1642).
    The motion of celestial bodies such as moon, earth, planets etc. and attraction of moon towards earth and earth towards sun is an interesting subject of study since long time.
    Now few question arises that are
    (a) what is the force that produces such acceleration with which earth attract all bodies towards the center
    (b) What is the law governing this force.
    (c) Is this law is same for both earthly and celestial bodies.
    Answer to this question was given by Newton as he declared that
    Laws of nature are same for earthly and celestial Bodies.

    The force between any object falling freely towards earth and that between earth and moon are governed by the same laws.

    Kepler (1571-1631) Studied the planetary motion in detail and formulated his three laws of planetary motion, which were available Universal law of gravitation.
    More About Gravitation

    You must have observed that whenever you throw any object upwards it reaches a certain height and then falls downward towards the Earth. So these objects are acting under the gravitational pull of the Earth or gravitational forces which are forces of attraction.
    Gravitational force or gravity of earth is responsible for pulling you and keeping you on earth.
    Now each and every object in this universe that has mass exerts a gravitational force on every other mass and the size of that pull depends on how large or small are the masses of two objects under consideration.
    So for smaller masses like two human beings the gravitational force of attraction is very small and is negligible because two peoples are not very massive
    Now when you consider massive objects like planets, Sun, Earth, Moon or other celestial bodies, the gravitational pull becomes very strong.
    So here you must note that gravitational force depends on how massive objects under consideration are.
    Gravity is very important on earth . It is the gravitational pull of earth that keeps our planet orbiting round Sun.
    The motion of moon is also affected by both Sun and Earth.
    Why don’t Moon Fall down

    You must wonder If gravitational force is a force of attraction then why does moon not fall into earth?
    To understand this consider a person whirling a stone tied to a thread along a circular path as shown below in the figure.

    If he releases the stone then it flies along the tangent , at that point on the circular path.
    Before the release of thread it is centripetal force responsible for the motion of stone in the circular path where the stone moves with a certain speed and changes direction at every point.
    During this motion the change in direction involves change in velocity which produces acceleration. This force which is called centripetal force , causes this acceleration and keeps the body moving along the circular path is acting towards the center.
    Now when the thread is released the stone does not experience this force and flies off along a straight line that is tangent to the circular path.
    The motion of the moon around the earth is due to the centripetal force. The centripetal force is provided by the force of attraction of the earth. If there were no such force, the moon would pursue a uniform straight line motion.
    Universal Law of Gravitation

    Universal Law of gravitation was formulated by Sit Issac Newton.
    It states that
    Every body in universe attracts every other body with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of distance between them. The force acts along the line joining the two bodies

    To understand that let us consider two objects of masses MM and mm that lie at a distance rr from each other as shown below in the figure

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    Professor Brian Cox Lecture on the universe


    A lecture by Brian Cox on how the universe was created.
    If you like this video please help me grow my channel by hitting that like button. Thanks guys! Oh & dont forget all comments are welcome so leave one, or even ask a question & answer a few

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    Geologist Dr. Kurt Wise: The Genesis Lectures 2014


    Credit to Chapel Spring

    Credentials of Dr. Kurt Wise:
    B.A. (Honors) in geophysical science, University of Chicago
    M.A. in geology, Harvard University
    Ph.D. in geology, Harvard University (studied under Stephen Jay Gould)
    Member of the Geological Society of America

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    Lecture - 1 Introduction to Engineering Geology


    Lecture Series on Engineering Geology by Prof.Debasis Roy, Department of Civil Engineering,I.I.T.Kharagpur.For more Courses visit

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    MOOC | Jeffrey Sachs - The Age of Sustainable Development | Lecture 1, Chapter 1


    Jeffrey Sachs's new, free course, The Age of Sustainable Development, gives students an understanding of the key challenges and pathways to sustainable development - that is, economic development that is also socially inclusive and environmentally sustainable.

    Sustainable development is the most urgent challenge facing humanity. The fundamental question is how the world economy can continue to develop in a way that is socially inclusive and environmentally sustainable. The course describes the complex interactions between the world economy and the Earth's physical environment. Ecological processes and constraints (climate, disease ecology, physical resources such as soils and energy sources, topography and transport conditions) significantly shape the patterns of economic development, demography, and wealth and poverty. At the same time, human activities (farming, land use, urbanization, demographic change, and energy use) change the physical environments, increasingly in dangerous ways. The course offers a broad overview of the key challenges and potential solutions to achieve sustainable development in the 21st century.

    For more information on the course, visit:

    For more information on Jeffrey Sachs and Columbia University's Earth Institute, visit:

    To follow the class and Jeffrey Sachs, please follow @jeffdsachs, hashtag #susdev

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    Jeffrey Sachs on sustainable development for Kapuscinski Development Lectures


    Join LIVE chat on 11 Dec on sustainable development with prof. Jeffrey Sachs, Director of Earth Institute/Columbia University, at Post your questions here.

    11 December 2013 at 13:00 GMT / 14:00 CET

    Post your questions to prof. Sachs as comments below this video.

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    What is Remote Sensing?


    A video lecture introducing the topic of remote sensing for the Remote Sensing of Global Change lecture course at the University of Edinburgh.
    You can see my remote sensing eBooks at
    Thirteen short chapters on remote sensing
    Available as a Kindle book:

    And as an iBook:

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    Class 9 Science Natural Resources by CBSE Lectures


    For DVD Purchase Call 7838942884 OR Click Here:
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    Biosphere– The whole combination of animals, plants and non-living beings which by their interaction make the planet earth a live and vibrant place is called biosphere.

    *Biosphere has 3 divisions-*Lithosphere- Outer solid crust of earth *Hydrosphere- Water component of earth.

    *Atmosphere– Blanket of air that covers the whole earth.

    *Biotic component- Living beings are referred to as biotic. Example- trees, cats , dogs etc.

    *Abiotic components- Non loving things are called abiotic components. Example- sun, air, soil etc.




    *The multilayered gaseous envelope surrounding the planet earth is called atmosphere.

    It filters the sunlight reaching earth, affects climate and is a reservoir of elements.
    *The atmosphere prevents the sudden increase in temperature during the daylight hours. And during the night, it slows down the escape of heat into outer space.


    *Winds are the result of changes that take place in our atmosphere due to the heating of air and the formation of water vapors.

    *Factors influencing winds: vUneven heating of land. vRotation of earth.

    vDifference in heating and cooling of land and water bodies.

    vVaporization and condensation.


    It is the addition of air pollutants such as particulate matter, gases and vapors.

    It causes asthma, bronchitis and allergic colds.
    It causes irritation in eyes, throat and lungs.
    It also causes cancer.
    It causes ozone layer depletion.

    *A phenomenon in which the atmosphere of a planet traps radiation emitted by its sun, caused by gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but retain heat radiated back from the planet’s surface.


    *Oceans, rivers, lakes, ponds, pools etc. collectively form the hydrosphere

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    Earth´s Climate and Climate Change. Lecture 1 part 1


    Earth´s Climate and Climate Change is a PhD course held at Gothenburg University, spring 2014. This is the first of a series of PhD courses which we will record, edit and post on, free for everyone interested. This first lecture is given by Martin Persson, Assistant Professor at Physical Resource Theory at
    Department of Energy & Environment at Chalmers University of Technology

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    Sustainable Living Program, Environment 185, ESLP, Lecture 1, UCLA


    Scott Sherman on Introductions, Footprints, and Empowerment, as part of the Education for Sustainable Living Program (ESLP).

    ESLP is a student designed, student developed, and student facilitated program offered through UCLA's Institute of the Environment. ESLP runs a Lecture Series which brings guest speakers from UCLA and across the country to speak on specialized subjects including food systems, green business, organic gardens, sustainable living, the green economy, environmental justice, transportation, as well as sustainability projects across Los Angeles. More information can be found at

    Scott Sherman is a founder of the Transformative Action Institute (TIA), devoted to training a new generation of social entrepreneurs, innovators, visionaries and problem-solvers for the 21st century.

    Some clips and images may have been blurred or removed to avoid copyright infringement.

    * See all the UCLA Education for Sustainable Living classes in this series:
    * See more courses from UCLA:
    * See more from UCLA's main channel on YouTube:

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    Stars and The Solar System Class 8 Science CBSE Lectures


    For DVD Purchase Call 7838942884 OR Click Here:
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    Celestial objects

    The objects which exist in sky are called celestial objects.

    For example: stars, moon, planets


    Stars are celestial objects that are extremely hot and have their own light.

    The sun is also a star. It is the nearest to the earth.

    Though stars are present in the sky in day time but we cannot see them because of bright sun light.

    Stars appear to move in sky from west to east direction. This motion is due to rotation of earth from west to east on its axis.

    Measurement of distance

    The interstellar distances or intergalactic distances are too big to be easily expressed in terms of kilometers. Hence, we need a more convenient unit to express them. A light year is the distance travelled by light in one year. Distances of stars are usually expressed in terms of light years.

    The sunlight takes about 8 minutes to travel from the sun to the earth. This implies that the sun is at a distance of 8 light minute from us. Alpha Centauri is 4.3 light years away from us.

    The sun is the nearest star from us. It is at a distance of about 150,000,000 (one hundred fifty million) kilometer from us.

    The next nearest star from us is Alpha Centauri. This is about 40,000,000,000,000 (forty trillion) km from us.

    Pole star:

    While other stars appear to move with gradual progress of night, the pole star remains fixed at its position. This happens because the pole star is in line with the axis of the earth. The pole star appears in the northern sky.

    the fixed position of the pole star has helped humans since ages. Sailors and travelers used the pole star to find way when they had to travel during night.


    A group of stars which resembles certain shape is called a constellation. Human beings have an innate ability to recognize shapes and faces even in formless things; like clouds, smoke, etc.

    Each constellation has been given a name signifying an animal, a human being or some object which appears to resemble it.


    Ursa major



    Leo major

    Ursa Major: This is also called great bear and Big Dipper.
    It has 7 bright stars.

    It resembles the shape of a ladle. The four stars which appear as four vertices of a quadrilateral make the bowl of the ladle and the remaining three stars make the handle of the ladle.

    Ursa Major appears in the northern sky.

    It is visible during summer season in the early part of the night.

    The pole star is in line with last two stars of the quadrilateral. Since this constellation appears quite close to the pole star, it looks as if revolving around the pole star.

    Orion constellation: Orion is also called the Hunter. The three prominent stars in this constellation mark the belt of the hunter.
    It consists of seven or eight bright stars.

    An elaborate structure shows a man with a club and a shield.

    This constellation is visible in the southern sky and this can be easily seen during winter season in the late evenings.

    Sirius is the brightest star located close to Orion constellation.

    Cassiopeia constellation: It is located in northern sky. It consists of 5 main stars.
    These are arranged to form the shape of W or M.

    It is visible during winter in the early part of night.

    Leo Major:

    It is also in northern sky. It consists of 9 main stars.

    The arrangement of stars in leo major looks like lion.

    It is visible during summer in the early part of night.

    Solar system

    Solar system consists of the sun, the eight planets and their satellites or moons, and millions of smaller asteroids, comets and meteoroids

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    Physics - Mechanics: Finding the Center of Mass Earth-Moon System


    Visit for more math and science lectures!

    In this second of the four part series I will show you how to find the center of mass of the Earth-Moon system.

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    “The Madhouse Effect” – the Earth101 lecture


    Michael E. Mann talks about the book he did with Washington Post editorial cartoonist Tom Toles. They target the ongoing campaign to deny the climate change threat through satire and where appropriate, ridicule, built around Tom Toles’ famously insightful, edgy, and provocative climate-themed cartoons.

    Michael E. Mann is Distinguished Professor of Atmospheric Science at Penn State University, with joint appointments in the Department of Geosciences and the Earth and Environmental Systems Institute (EESI). He is also director of the Penn State Earth System Science Center (ESSC).

    Dr. Mann received his Ph.D. in Geology & Geophysics from Yale University. His research involves the use of theoretical models and observational data to better understand Earth's climate system. He was a Lead Author on the Observed Climate Variability and Change chapter of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Scientific Assessment Report in 2001 and was organizing committee chair for the National Academy of Sciences Frontiers of Science in 2003. He has received a number of honors including NOAA’s outstanding publication award in 2002. He contributed, with other IPCC authors, to the award of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize. He was awarded the Hans Oeschger Medal of the European Geosciences Union in 2012 and the National Conservation Achievement Award for science by the National Wildlife Federation in 2013. He made Bloomberg News list of fifty most influential people in 2013.

    Dr. Mann is a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union, the American Meteorological Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is author of more than 190 peer-reviewed and edited publications and has published the books Dire Predictions: Understanding Climate Change and The Hockey Stick and the Climate Wars: Dispatches from the Front Lines. He is also a co-founder of the award-winning science website

    “The Madhouse Effect” is a part of series of lectures given at the University of Iceland on May 27th 2016 at the conference The Past, the Future. How Fast, How Far? Threats Facing the Climate System


    Guðni Elísson: “Earth2016”

    Michael E. Mann: “Dire Predictions: Understanding Climate Change”
    Stefan Rahmstorf: “Rising Seas: How fast, How Far?”
    Stefan Rahmstorf: “Is the Gulf Stream System Slowing?”

    15 minutes break

    Michael E. Mann: “The Hockey Stick and the Climate Wars: The Battle Continues”
    Michael E. Mann: “The Madhouse Effect: How Climate Change Denial is Threatening our Planet, Destroying our Politics, and Driving us Crazy”
    Stefan Rahmstorf: “Extreme Weather: What Role Does Global Warming Play?”

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